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R-CHART

INTRODUCTION

R- Chart
is a type of control chart used to
monitor variables data when
samples are collected at regular
intervals and is widely used to
examine
the
stability
of
processes from a business or
industrial process.

CONT,,,,,
The chart is advantageous in the
following situations
The sample size is relatively small (say,
n 10 bar x and s charts are typically
used for larger sample sizes)
The sample size is constant
Humans must perform the calculations
for the chart

R chart plots the mean value for


the quality characteristic across all
units in the sample.
R = xmax - xmin.

The control limits for this chart type


are:

(lower) and
variability

(upper) for monitoring the process

are the estimates of the long-term


process mean and range established during control-chart setup and A2,
D3, and D4 are sample size-specific anti-biasing constants. The antibiasing constants are typically found in the appendices of textbooks
on statistical process control.

Center Line:

Upper Control Limit:

Lower Control Limit:

An Alternative Method for the Xbar Chart Using R-bar and the A2
Factor
Use this method
when sigma for the
process distribution
is not known. Use
factor A2 from Table
6.1

Sample Size
(n)

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Factor for x-Chart

A2
1.88
1.02
0.73
0.58
0.48
0.42
0.37
0.34
0.31
0.29
0.27
0.25
0.24
0.22

Factors for R-Chart

D3
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.08
0.14
0.18
0.22
0.26
0.28
0.31
0.33
0.35

D4
3.27
2.57
2.28
2.11
2.00
1.92
1.86
1.82
1.78
1.74
1.72
1.69
1.67
1.65

Step 1: Calculate the Range


of Each Sample and Average
Range
Time 1

Time 2

Time 3

Observation 1

15.8

16.1

16.0

Observation 2

16.0

16.0

15.9

Observation 3

15.8

15.8

15.9

Observation 4

15.9

15.9

15.8

Sample ranges
(R)

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2 0.3 0.2


R
.233
3

Step 2: Calculate CL, UCL, LCL


Center line:

15.875 15.975 15.9


CL x
15.92
3
Control limits for 3 limits:

UCLx x A2 R 15.92 0.73 .233 16.09


LCLx x A2 R 15.92 0.73 .233 15.75

Control Chart for Range (RChart)


Center Line and Control
Limit calculations:

CL R

0.2 0.3 0.2


.233
3

UCL D4R 2.28(.233) .53


LCL D3R 0.0(.233) 0.0

Sample Size
(n)

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Factor for x-Chart

A2
1.88
1.02
0.73
0.58
0.48
0.42
0.37
0.34
0.31
0.29
0.27
0.25
0.24
0.22

Factors for R-Chart

D3
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.08
0.14
0.18
0.22
0.26
0.28
0.31
0.33
0.35

D4
3.27
2.57
2.28
2.11
2.00
1.92
1.86
1.82
1.78
1.74
1.72
1.69
1.67
1.65

R-Bar Control Chart

Interpreting the Range


Chart

On the Range chart, look for out of control points. If there


are any, then the special causes must be eliminated.
Brainstorm and conduct Designed Experiments to find
those process elements that contribute to sporadic changes
in variation. To use the data you have, turn Auto Drop ON,
which will remove the statistical bias of the out of control
points by dropping them from the calculations of the
average Range, Range control limits, average X-bar and Xbar control limits.
Also on the range chart, there should be more than five
distinct values plotted, and no one value should appear
more than 25% of the time. If there are values repeated too
often, then you have inadequate resolution of your
measurements, which will adversely affect your control limit
calculations. In this case, youwill have to look at how you