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Values and Ethics

This chapter will cover

Value assumptions

Conflicts between value assumptions

Value priorities

Ideal values versus real values

Ethics in argumentation

Ethical decision making

Values and Ethics


Assumptions
Unstated (and often unconscious)
beliefs

Value Assumptions and Conflicts


Values
Beliefs, ideals, or principles that are
considered worthy and held in high
regard.
Truth
Loyalty
Freedom

Values Assumptions
Value assumptions:
Beliefs about how the
world should be

What is more important

Form the foundation of an


argument.

Reality assumptions:
Beliefs about how the
world is

Value Assumptions and Conflicts


Value Conflict
When two competing values cannot be
held to the same degree in a given
argument or situation:

Skill
Understand that different values form the basis
of many arguments and that conflicts are often
based on differing value priorities.

Value Conflicts
Issue:
When my roommate asks
how she looks in her new
outfit, should I tell her that
she has hideous taste in
clothes?

Conclusion:
Ill tell her its ugly and that
she should never buy her own
clothes because she couldnt
dress a scarecrow!

Reason:
She expects and deserves an honest
answer.

Value Assumption?
Honesty

Ethics- A Dimension of Values


Ethics
Standards of conduct that reflecting what we
consider to be right or wrong

Ethics- A Dimension of Values


Morals
Principles that distinguish right from wrong
behavior

Ethics
Why we have disagreements
We hold many values in common,
but to different degrees

Ethics
Some Common Ethics
Libertarianism: promote individual liberty
Utilitarianism: promote the greatest general
happiness/minimize unhappiness
Egalitarianism: promote equality for all
Religious:
promote faith spirituality
Prima facie values: universal ethical principles

Ideal Values and Real Values


Ideal Values
Held by an individual in a
theoretical sense

Ideal Values and Real Values


Real Values
Theoretical and practiced

Ethics
U.S. Declaration of
Independence
"We hold these truths to be self evident, that all [men] are
created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator
with certain unalienable rights*, that among these are
life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness."

* Natural (life and liberty) vs legal

Ethics in Argumentation

Honesty in conclusions
Do not omit or distort
Thoroughly research claims made
Listen respectfully to opposing viewpoints
Be willing to revise position
Credit secondary sources

Ethical Decision Making


How do we know what our
principles and standards are?

Role Exchange Test


The Universal Consequences Test
The New Cases Test
The Higher Principles Test

Common Rationalizations
Ethics in action
If Its Necessary, Its Ethical
The False Necessity Trap
If Its Legal and Permissible, Its Ethical
I Was Just Doing It For You

Common Rationalizations
Ethics in action

Im Just Fighting Fire With Fire


It Doesnt Hurt Anyone, & Everyones Doing It
Its O.K. If I Dont Gain Personally
Ive Got It Coming (I Deserve It)
I can still be objective

Toulmins Model
A Method for Discovering Assumptions
Claims
Reasons
Warrants

Toulmins Model:
Claim

A statement of an individuals belief


or stand upon an issue

Toulmins Model
Warrant

The unstated but necessary link


between reasons and claims

Toulmins Model
Claim:

We will have to
leave at 5 a.m.
to make our
flight

Reason:
because

We will be
driving in rush
hour traffic.

Warrant: ?

Rush hour traffic moves more slowly


than other traffic

Values and Ethics


Checkup

What are value conflicts


Name some ethics to use in an argument
Difference between ideal and real values
What are some common rationalizations