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02 Knits and Other

Fabric Constructions

Apparel Development II
Ms. Jessica Edwards

Knitting is done by pulling

loops of yarn through other
loops of yarn to create
interlocked rows.


1. Weft Knit

Weft, or filling knits are made with only one yarn.

Done by hand or machine
Most have two-way stretch, lengthwise and
Can get lengthwise runs from broken threads
because of single yarn construction

Method of Knitting

Plain most common, sometimes called

jersey, front and back are different; used
for hosiery, t-shirts, sports shirts, dresses,
and sweaters
Purl same on both sides, stretch
lengthwise and crosswise; used for

Types of Weft Knits

Rib have vertical ribs or columns of

stitches that alternate on the front and
back; used as neck, wrist, and bottom
bands on sweaters and jackets
Double made with two yarns and two
sets of needles, heavier, firmer, and
sturdier than other knits, will not run or
ravel; can be used for a variety of

Types of Weft Knits cont.

2. Warp Knit

Warp knits are made with several yarns on flat

knitting machines.
Yarns interlock
Each loop is made up of two yarns
Usually run-resistant

Method of Knitting

Tricot have very fine vertical wales on the

right side and crosswise courses on the back;
used for lingerie, underwear, shirts, and
Raschel may have an extra yarn stitched in to
produce a textured or patterned design; open
and lacy knits can be created

Types of Warp Knits

Fibers, yarns, and fabric can be joined

together by heat and moisture,
adhesives, bonding agents, or

Other Fabric

Made by interlocking the fibers with heat and

moisture or with an adhesive substance
Felt is a nonwoven fabric
Do not ravel or fray
Flexible and have good shape retention
May have weak areas and may tear easily
Inexpensive to produce
Diapers, interfacing, and disposable surgical
gowns are end uses

Nonwoven Fabrics

Woven or knitted fabrics that have been

constructed to stretch more than they
normally would.
Can be designed to stretch in warp direction,
filling direction, or both.
Two-way stretch fabrics are suitable for
swimsuits, exercise wear, and active

Stretch Fabrics

Can be bonded to another fabric, vinyl, clear

films, or rubberized coatings
Simulated leather has vinyl bonded to a woven
or knitted base.
Rubberized coatings can be added for water

Bonded and Laminated


Made by twisting or looping

threads or yarns together on special

Laces and Nets

Consists of two layers of fabric

with batting between them

Quilted Fabrics