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CONDITIONED vs

UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS
&
USING POPULAR SONG IN THE
BACKGROUND TO ADVERTISE A PRODUCT
IS A GOOD OR POOR IDEA?

Conditioned Stimulus
Defined
Jenny drives the same route to work every day. One morning, a car
runs a red light and hits Jenny at a prominent intersection on her
normal route. After that, every time she approaches the intersection,
Jenny's hands begin to sweat and her heart races.
The intersection is a conditioned stimulus for Jenny. A conditioned
stimulus is created when we learn to react to something because we
associate it with something else. It's part of the psychological theory of
classical conditioning.

Unconditioned stimulus defined..


Billy never had any strong feelings towards rulers until he went to live
with his grandmother. Whenever he was bad, she would beat him with a
ruler. Being beaten made him very upset. Now, as an adult, he feels
upset whenever he sees a ruler.
In this example of classical conditioning, Billy gets upset when he is
beaten. His reaction to being beaten is natural and automatic. No one has
told him to feel that way - it is an unconditioned response. The
beating, which is the reason he has the unconditioned response, is an
unconditioned stimulus, which is simply something that elicits a
natural, automatic reaction.

Conditional stimulus
In classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is a
previously neutral stimulus that, after becoming associated
with the unconditioned stimulus, eventually comes to trigger a
conditioned response.
For example, suppose that the smell of food is an
unconditioned stimulus and a feeling of hunger is the
unconditioned response. Now, imagine that when you smelled
your favorite food, you also heard the sound of a whistle.

Example of conditional stimulus

Unconditional stimulus
In classical conditioning, the unconditioned
stimulus (UCS) is one that unconditionally,
naturally, and automatically triggers a
response.
For example, when you smell one of your
favorite foods, you may immediately feel very
hungry. In this example, the smell of the food is
the

Major types of conditioned stimulus


Forward conditioning
Simultaneous conditioning
Backward conditioning
Temporal conditioning

Forward conditioning

During forward conditioning, the onset of the CS leads the onset of the US in order to
signal that the US will follow

Two common forms of forward conditioning are delay and trace conditioning.

Delay conditioning: In delay conditioning the CS is presented and is overlapped by the


presentation of the US.

Trace conditioning: During trace conditioning the CS and US do not overlap. Instead,
the CS begins and ends before the US is presented. The stimulus-free period is called
thetrace interval. It may also be called theconditioning interval.For example: If you
sound a buzzer for 5 seconds and then, a second later, puff air into a person's eye, the
person will blink. After several pairings of the buzzer and puff the person will blink at the
sound of the buzzer alone

Simultaneous conditioning

During simultaneous conditioning, the CS and US are presented and


terminated at the same time.

For example: If you ring a bell and blow a puff of air into a persons eye at the
same moment, you have accomplished to coincide the CS and US.

Backward conditioning
Backward conditioning occurs when a CS immediately follows a US.Unlike the
usual conditioning procedure, in which the CS precedes the US, the
conditioned response given to the CS tends to be inhibitory. This presumably
happens because the CS serves as a signal that the US has ended, rather
than as a signal that the US is about to appear.

For example, a puff of air directed at a person's eye could be followed by the
sound of a buzzer.

Temporal conditioning

In temporal conditioning a US is presented at regular intervals, for instance every 10


minutes. Conditioning is said to have occurred when the CR tends to occur shortly
before each US. This suggests that animals have a biological clock that can serve as
a CS. This method has also been used to study timing ability in animals.

Cokes polar bear ad campaign :

USING POPULAR SONG IN THE


BACKGROUND TO ADVERTISE A
PRODUCT IS A GOOD OR POOR
IDEA?

INTRODUCTION

Music in advertisingrefers tomusic integrated in


(mass)electronic media advertisementsin order to enhance its
success. Music in advertising affects the way viewers perceive
the brand by different means and on different levels.

Theentertainmentaspect of musichelps make an


advertisement more appealing by adding aesthetic value to it.
An advertisement that has high aesthetic value will be able to
capture more attention from the audience. From this point of
view, music need not necessarily manifest any special affinity
with a particular product or service in order to play an effective
and useful function.

HISTORY

The idea of music goes back to olden times, when street vendors hawked their
goods to the tune of a melodic chant.

Advertisements have relied heavily on music to get peoples attention, set a mood,
creates the right brand image and to sell the advertiser's product.

Early television commercials in the 1950s, featured well known classical


masterpieces as background music.

In the 1980s,children became a target audience for advertisers; advertising


children's toys during cartoons.

In the 1990s,television advert breaks extended to 12-15 minutes per an hour long
programme.

In the 21st century,jingles make a comeback. There are various adverts which
feature jingles in the present day. On the television, you can hear the jingle which
the majority of you will have heard; Honey-Bunny " in the idea mobiles
advertisements.

USE OF MUSIC IN ADVERTISEMENTS

Music can contribute to an effective broadcast advertisement:


1) Entertainment
2) structure/continuity
3) Memorability
4) Lyrical language
5) Targeting
6) Authority establishment

EFFECTS OF USING MUSIC IN


ADVERTISING ON CONSUMER
BEHAVIOUR

Popular songs can initiate both positive and negative effects on the
consumers attitude towards the product

Influence of Song Tempo, Rhythm, Pitch and Musical Mode on Consumer


Mood and Attitude

Effects of Background Music on Attention and Memory

Depends on demographics

Connectivity is situational

POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED

Musical congruity with other elements of the advertisement

Consumer responses towards background music in cases of low


involvement and high involvement

Target consumers may have negative associations with the music.

Unsuitable music can harm the brands image