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Chapter 3 :

MOMENTUM

Contents:
1. Centre of Mass
2. Conservation of Momentum
3. Impulse
4. Momentum and flow of mass
5. Momentum transport
6. Problems
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Momentum

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Introduction
The momentum of a particle is
defined as the product of its mass
and its velocity:
Momentum is a vector, in the
same direction as ( is a
scalar) and its units are kg.m/s.
Newtons second law can be written
in terms of momentum as
i.e.,

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Introduction
In 2nd chapter (Newtons Laws of Motion), the concept of
point mass is introduced and used.
In reality a) extended bodies
b) flow of mass (variable mass)
In this Chapter, we generalise the Newtons Laws so as to
suit to the real situations.
Momentum (P): Quantity of Motion. Vector. SI Unit: Ns

r
r dP
is preferred to
F=
dt

r
r
F = ma
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Internal and External Forces


There are two classes of forces that act on and within
systems.
INTERNAL FORCES are forces between an object
within the system and another object within the system.
EXTERNAL FORCES are forces between an object
within the system and an object outside the system.

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External and internal forces


We can classify each force as external or internal.
The sum of all forces on all forces on all the particles is
then
Because of Newton's third law, the internal forces all cancel
in pairs, and

So,
Or
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It is easy to find the center of


mass of a homogeneous
symmetric object, as shown
in figure at the left.

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Centre of Mass
The effective position of a system of particles is the point
that moves as though
(1)all of the systems mass were concentrated there and
(2) all external forces were applied there.

r eff
1
r
r
r
R
(m1r1 m2 r2 m
N rN )
M sys
M sys m1 m2 m
N
The effective position is called as the center of mass of a
system. It represents the average location for the total
mass of a system

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Centre of Mass
Four masses 1 kg, 2 kg, 3 kg and 4 kg are placed at the
four vertices of a square of side 1m as shown in the
figure. Find CM of the arrangement.
Y
3kg

4kg
1m
1kg

1m

2kg X

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Solution
Consider the 4 masses in the coordinate system are placed as
shown
Y

Center of mass

3kg

4kg
1m

X cm

(1 0) (2 1) (3 1) (4 0)

0.5
1 2 3 4

1kg

1m

2kg X

(1 0) (2 0) (3 1) (4 1)
Ycm
0.7
1 2 3 4

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

. Three objects are located in the x-y


plane as shown in the figure.
Determine the x coordinate of the
center of mass for this system of
three objects. Note the masses of
the objects: mA = 6.0 kg, mB = 2.0
kg, and mC = 4.0 kg.

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The total momentum of a system is


equal to the total mass times the
velocity of the center of mass.
The center of mass of the wrench in
the figure at the right moves as
though all the mass were
concentrated there.

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Solid Bodies

If objects have uniform density,

For objects such as a golf club, the mass is


distributed symmetrically and the center-of-mass point
is located at the geometric center of the objects.
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Centre of mass formulae:

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Ex 3.3 (page 119)Centre of


mass of a Non-uniform rod:

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Example 3.4 (page120) : Centre


of mass of triangular sheet

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Alternate method
Because of uniform density and uniform mass,

M dm
M
M

dm
dA
( ydx)
A dA
A
(1 / 2)bh
Therefore
X CM

1
xdm M

From similar triangles,


Substituting X
cm
By similar method,

2
2M
0 x bh ydx bh 0 xydx

y h
h
or y x
x b
b

2
h
2
2
x
2

x xdx 2 x dx 2

bh 0 b
b 0
b 3
b

YCM

2
b
3

1
h
3
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Conservation of Momentum
r
Fnet

r
dPsys
dt

For any system, the forces that the particles of the system
exert on each other are called internal forces.
Forces exerted on any part of the system by some object
outside it are called external forces.
Conservationofmomentum:Ifthevectorsumofthe
externalforcesonasystemiszero,thetotalmomentum
ofthesystemisconstant.
Mathematically, it can be written as
when F = 0 then, P = constant.
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Conservation of Momentum
We know that F = dP/dt , where F is the external
force acting on the system and P is the total
momentum of the system.
For an isolated system of particles, the total
momentum of the system remains constant.
Mathematically, it can be written as
when F = 0 then, P = constant.

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Ex. 3.6 Spring Gun Recoil :

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Before firing of the gun,


As there are no horizontal external forces, Px. Initial is conserved
Since the system is initially at rest, Px. Initial = 0
But according to the LCM,
Px. Initial = Px,final
After firing of the gun,
The gun recoils the some speed
Vf and its final horizontal momentum
is MVf , to the left.
Guns final velocity is also Vf .

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At the same instant the marbles speed relative to the gun


is v0
Hence the final speed relative to the table is v0 cos - Vf
Using conservation of momentum, we have
0 = m(v0 cos - Vf ) = MVf
Or

mv 0 cos
Vf =
M+m

The same problem can also be solved by using Newtons


Laws directly.

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Solution:

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Impulse
The impulse of a force is
the product of the force and
the time interval during
which it acts.
On a graph of Fx versus
time, the impulse is equal to
the area under the curve, as
shown in figure to the right.

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Impulse
Impulse-momentum theorem: The change in momentum of
a particle during a time interval is equal to the impulse of
the net force acting on the particle during that interval.

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Impulse
The relation between force and momentum is F = dP/dt
The integral form of force-momentum relationship is

The change in momentum is the time integral of force.


is called IMPULSE.

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Typically, a tennis ball is in contact with the racket for


approximately 0.01 s. The ball flattens noticeably due to the
tremendous force exerted by the racket.

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Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Solution:

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Momentum and Flow of Mass


In the following examples, the Newtons laws can not be
applied blindily, as the mass is flowing or mass is a variable
Rocket
Calculation of reaction force on a fire hose
Calculation of acceleration of a snow ball which grows
larger as it rolls downhill.
When we apply the integral form,
it is essential to deal with the same set of particles
throughout the time interval ta to tb. Consequently, the
mass of the system cannot change during the time of
interest.
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Example 3.11 (page 134),


Mass flow and momentum

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Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Example 3.12, (page135)

Freight Car and Hopper


Sand falls from a stationary hopper
onto a freight car which is moving
with uniform velocity v. The sand
falls at the rate dm/dt. How much
force is needed to keep the freight
car moving at the speed v?
(because u = 0)
The required force is F =

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Example 3.13 (page 136)

Leaky Freight car

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Rocket propulsion
As a rocket burns fuel, its mass decreases, as shown in
Figure below.

Rocket propulsion

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The x-velocityof the burned fuel relative to our coordinate system is


and the x-component of momentum of the ejected mass

Thus the total x-component of momentum, P2, of the rocket plus ejected fuel at
time t+dt is
Or
And is simplified to
neglecting ( ), because it is a
product of two small quantities
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The net force or thrust is


The x-componentof acceleration of the rocket is

If the exhaust ex, speed is constant, we can integrate above


equation to find a relationship between the velocity at any
time and the remaining mass m.At time =0, let the mass be
o and the velocity o. Then we rewrite the equation as

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We change the integration variables to and so we can use


and mastheupper limits (the final speed and mass). Then we
integrate both sides, using limits o to and o to m,and take
the constant outside the integral:

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Example 3.14(page 138)

Rocket in free space

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Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Example 3.15 (page139)

Rocket in a Gravitational Field

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Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Momentum Transport
On the receiving end as a stream of water from a hose, a push is
felt.
Consider

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Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Ex. No. 3.16

Solution
Velocity vo

Ft p mvo

vot

m vol
Where is the density and vol is the volume

D 2
m
vo t
4
D
Ft
vo tvo
4
2

D 2 2
F Thusvo
4
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Problems
3.1 The density of a thin rod of length l varies with the distance x

o x 2
from one end as 2 . Find the position of the center of mass.
l
Solution
o x 2
dm dx,
l2
o l 2
ol
M dm 2 x dx
l 0
3
1
1
x2
X
xdm
x o 2 dx

M
M
l

o
Ml

x
0

dx

ol

4M

ol 2 3
3
X
l
4 ol 4
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Suppose a cannon shell traveling in a parabolic trajectory (neglecting air


resistance) explodes in flight, splitting into two fragments with equal
mass (figure below). The fragments follow new parabolic paths, but the
center of mass continues on the original parabolic trajectory, just as
though all the mass were still concentrated at that point.

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Ex. No. 3.4

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Solution
A object of mass 4m breaks into masses m and.
The mass m is ejected backwards at x=0
The mass 3m moves forwards at x = 2L
Therefore, the center-of-mass of the two fragments must
be
Or

So the landing point of 3m is

m
0

3
m
2L

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Ex. No. 3.5


3.5 A circus acrobat of mass M leaps straight up with initial
velocity vo from a trampoline. As he rises up, he takes a
trained monkey of mass m off a perch at a height h above the
trampoline. What is the maximum height attained by the pair?

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Solution
To find speed of acrobat before he grabs the monkey

v=0

vm2 vo2 2 gh

M+
Using momentum conservation to find speed of
m
monkey and acrobat just after he grabs the monkey
Mv m
M vm m 0 ( M m )v v
M
( M m)
2
v
Also 0 2 v 2 2 gx . Therefore x
2g
Substituting for v,
vm2
v2
M2
M2
x

2
2 g ( M m) 2 g ( M m) 2

vo

vo2

2g

Therefore total height = h + x


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Ex. No. 3.9


3.9 A freight car of mass M contains a mass of sand m. At t=0 a
constant horizontal force F is applied in the direction of rolling and
at the same time a port in the bottom is opened to let the sand
flow out at constant rate dm/dt. Find the speed of the freight car
when all the sand is gone. Assume the freight car is at rest at t=0.
Solution
Choose the positive-direction to point in the direction that the car is
moving.
Lets the amount of sand of mass ms that leaves the freight car
during the time interval [ t, t+ t], and the freight car and whatever
sand is in it at time t .

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t
mc(t) +ms

t+
t
mc(t)

v +v
v +v

The momentum at time t

ms

where mc(t) is the mass of the car and sand in it at time t .


Denote by mc,0 = mc + ms
where the mc is the mass of the car and ms is the mass of the sand in the
car at t = 0, and
ms(t)= bt is the mass of the sand that has left the car at time t since

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Thus mc(t)=mc,0 (t) bt=mc+msbt.


momentum at time t+tisgivenby
Thereforeforce,

Substituting

Orsimplifyingandconvertingtodifferentiation

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Rewriting
Integrating both sides
Thus the velocity of the car as a function of time is

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Ex. No. 3.20

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Solution
The rocket equation is

dv
dm
FExternal m u
dt
dt

dv
Or m mg mbv um
dt
The mass cancels and

dv
g bv u 0
dt

C can be found from v(0) 0


The solution is v(t ) Ce bt g u 0 C g u

g u bt
v(t )
(e 1)
b

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Ex. No. 3.17


An inverted garbage can of weight W is
suspended in air by water from a geyser.
The water shoots up from the ground with a
speed 0, at a constant rate /. The
problem is to find the maximum height at
which the garbage can rides. What
assumption must be fulfilled for the
maximum height to be reached?

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Solution
Assumptions: 1. All water hits the can
2. If water hits the can travelling upwards at speed v, it reflects
and travels downward of speed v (by conservation of energy)
Thus the rate of change of momentum at the top of the can is
dm
P
2v
dt
At height h, o2 2 =2, Or v

vo2 2 gh
Change in momentum = W = mg

Thus,

dm
dm
1

W

W
2v
2 v 2 gh h
v

dt
dt
2g
2 dm
dt

2
o

2
o

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus