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You are on page 1of 70

MOMENTUM

Contents:

1. Centre of Mass

2. Conservation of Momentum

3. Impulse

4. Momentum and flow of mass

5. Momentum transport

6. Problems

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Momentum

Introduction

The momentum of a particle is

defined as the product of its mass

and its velocity:

Momentum is a vector, in the

same direction as ( is a

scalar) and its units are kg.m/s.

Newtons second law can be written

in terms of momentum as

i.e.,

Introduction

In 2nd chapter (Newtons Laws of Motion), the concept of

point mass is introduced and used.

In reality a) extended bodies

b) flow of mass (variable mass)

In this Chapter, we generalise the Newtons Laws so as to

suit to the real situations.

Momentum (P): Quantity of Motion. Vector. SI Unit: Ns

r

r dP

is preferred to

F=

dt

r

r

F = ma

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

There are two classes of forces that act on and within

systems.

INTERNAL FORCES are forces between an object

within the system and another object within the system.

EXTERNAL FORCES are forces between an object

within the system and an object outside the system.

We can classify each force as external or internal.

The sum of all forces on all forces on all the particles is

then

Because of Newton's third law, the internal forces all cancel

in pairs, and

So,

Or

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

mass of a homogeneous

symmetric object, as shown

in figure at the left.

Centre of Mass

The effective position of a system of particles is the point

that moves as though

(1)all of the systems mass were concentrated there and

(2) all external forces were applied there.

r eff

1

r

r

r

R

(m1r1 m2 r2 m

N rN )

M sys

M sys m1 m2 m

N

The effective position is called as the center of mass of a

system. It represents the average location for the total

mass of a system

Centre of Mass

Four masses 1 kg, 2 kg, 3 kg and 4 kg are placed at the

four vertices of a square of side 1m as shown in the

figure. Find CM of the arrangement.

Y

3kg

4kg

1m

1kg

1m

2kg X

Solution

Consider the 4 masses in the coordinate system are placed as

shown

Y

Center of mass

3kg

4kg

1m

X cm

(1 0) (2 1) (3 1) (4 0)

0.5

1 2 3 4

1kg

1m

2kg X

(1 0) (2 0) (3 1) (4 1)

Ycm

0.7

1 2 3 4

plane as shown in the figure.

Determine the x coordinate of the

center of mass for this system of

three objects. Note the masses of

the objects: mA = 6.0 kg, mB = 2.0

kg, and mC = 4.0 kg.

equal to the total mass times the

velocity of the center of mass.

The center of mass of the wrench in

the figure at the right moves as

though all the mass were

concentrated there.

Solid Bodies

distributed symmetrically and the center-of-mass point

is located at the geometric center of the objects.

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

mass of a Non-uniform rod:

of mass of triangular sheet

Alternate method

Because of uniform density and uniform mass,

M dm

M

M

dm

dA

( ydx)

A dA

A

(1 / 2)bh

Therefore

X CM

1

xdm M

Substituting X

cm

By similar method,

2

2M

0 x bh ydx bh 0 xydx

y h

h

or y x

x b

b

2

h

2

2

x

2

x xdx 2 x dx 2

bh 0 b

b 0

b 3

b

YCM

2

b

3

1

h

3

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Conservation of Momentum

r

Fnet

r

dPsys

dt

For any system, the forces that the particles of the system

exert on each other are called internal forces.

Forces exerted on any part of the system by some object

outside it are called external forces.

Conservationofmomentum:Ifthevectorsumofthe

externalforcesonasystemiszero,thetotalmomentum

ofthesystemisconstant.

Mathematically, it can be written as

when F = 0 then, P = constant.

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Conservation of Momentum

We know that F = dP/dt , where F is the external

force acting on the system and P is the total

momentum of the system.

For an isolated system of particles, the total

momentum of the system remains constant.

Mathematically, it can be written as

when F = 0 then, P = constant.

As there are no horizontal external forces, Px. Initial is conserved

Since the system is initially at rest, Px. Initial = 0

But according to the LCM,

Px. Initial = Px,final

After firing of the gun,

The gun recoils the some speed

Vf and its final horizontal momentum

is MVf , to the left.

Guns final velocity is also Vf .

is v0

Hence the final speed relative to the table is v0 cos - Vf

Using conservation of momentum, we have

0 = m(v0 cos - Vf ) = MVf

Or

mv 0 cos

Vf =

M+m

Laws directly.

Solution:

Impulse

The impulse of a force is

the product of the force and

the time interval during

which it acts.

On a graph of Fx versus

time, the impulse is equal to

the area under the curve, as

shown in figure to the right.

Impulse

Impulse-momentum theorem: The change in momentum of

a particle during a time interval is equal to the impulse of

the net force acting on the particle during that interval.

Impulse

The relation between force and momentum is F = dP/dt

The integral form of force-momentum relationship is

is called IMPULSE.

approximately 0.01 s. The ball flattens noticeably due to the

tremendous force exerted by the racket.

Solution:

In the following examples, the Newtons laws can not be

applied blindily, as the mass is flowing or mass is a variable

Rocket

Calculation of reaction force on a fire hose

Calculation of acceleration of a snow ball which grows

larger as it rolls downhill.

When we apply the integral form,

it is essential to deal with the same set of particles

throughout the time interval ta to tb. Consequently, the

mass of the system cannot change during the time of

interest.

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Mass flow and momentum

Sand falls from a stationary hopper

onto a freight car which is moving

with uniform velocity v. The sand

falls at the rate dm/dt. How much

force is needed to keep the freight

car moving at the speed v?

(because u = 0)

The required force is F =

Rocket propulsion

As a rocket burns fuel, its mass decreases, as shown in

Figure below.

Rocket propulsion

and the x-component of momentum of the ejected mass

Thus the total x-component of momentum, P2, of the rocket plus ejected fuel at

time t+dt is

Or

And is simplified to

neglecting ( ), because it is a

product of two small quantities

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

The x-componentof acceleration of the rocket is

equation to find a relationship between the velocity at any

time and the remaining mass m.At time =0, let the mass be

o and the velocity o. Then we rewrite the equation as

and mastheupper limits (the final speed and mass). Then we

integrate both sides, using limits o to and o to m,and take

the constant outside the integral:

Momentum Transport

On the receiving end as a stream of water from a hose, a push is

felt.

Consider

Solution

Velocity vo

Ft p mvo

vot

m vol

Where is the density and vol is the volume

D 2

m

vo t

4

D

Ft

vo tvo

4

2

D 2 2

F Thusvo

4

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

Problems

3.1 The density of a thin rod of length l varies with the distance x

o x 2

from one end as 2 . Find the position of the center of mass.

l

Solution

o x 2

dm dx,

l2

o l 2

ol

M dm 2 x dx

l 0

3

1

1

x2

X

xdm

x o 2 dx

M

M

l

o

Ml

x

0

dx

ol

4M

ol 2 3

3

X

l

4 ol 4

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

resistance) explodes in flight, splitting into two fragments with equal

mass (figure below). The fragments follow new parabolic paths, but the

center of mass continues on the original parabolic trajectory, just as

though all the mass were still concentrated at that point.

Solution

A object of mass 4m breaks into masses m and.

The mass m is ejected backwards at x=0

The mass 3m moves forwards at x = 2L

Therefore, the center-of-mass of the two fragments must

be

Or

m

0

3

m

2L

3.5 A circus acrobat of mass M leaps straight up with initial

velocity vo from a trampoline. As he rises up, he takes a

trained monkey of mass m off a perch at a height h above the

trampoline. What is the maximum height attained by the pair?

Solution

To find speed of acrobat before he grabs the monkey

v=0

vm2 vo2 2 gh

M+

Using momentum conservation to find speed of

m

monkey and acrobat just after he grabs the monkey

Mv m

M vm m 0 ( M m )v v

M

( M m)

2

v

Also 0 2 v 2 2 gx . Therefore x

2g

Substituting for v,

vm2

v2

M2

M2

x

2

2 g ( M m) 2 g ( M m) 2

vo

vo2

2g

Dr. Amaranath, BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus

3.9 A freight car of mass M contains a mass of sand m. At t=0 a

constant horizontal force F is applied in the direction of rolling and

at the same time a port in the bottom is opened to let the sand

flow out at constant rate dm/dt. Find the speed of the freight car

when all the sand is gone. Assume the freight car is at rest at t=0.

Solution

Choose the positive-direction to point in the direction that the car is

moving.

Lets the amount of sand of mass ms that leaves the freight car

during the time interval [ t, t+ t], and the freight car and whatever

sand is in it at time t .

t

mc(t) +ms

t+

t

mc(t)

v +v

v +v

ms

Denote by mc,0 = mc + ms

where the mc is the mass of the car and ms is the mass of the sand in the

car at t = 0, and

ms(t)= bt is the mass of the sand that has left the car at time t since

momentum at time t+tisgivenby

Thereforeforce,

Substituting

Orsimplifyingandconvertingtodifferentiation

Rewriting

Integrating both sides

Thus the velocity of the car as a function of time is

Solution

The rocket equation is

dv

dm

FExternal m u

dt

dt

dv

Or m mg mbv um

dt

The mass cancels and

dv

g bv u 0

dt

The solution is v(t ) Ce bt g u 0 C g u

g u bt

v(t )

(e 1)

b

An inverted garbage can of weight W is

suspended in air by water from a geyser.

The water shoots up from the ground with a

speed 0, at a constant rate /. The

problem is to find the maximum height at

which the garbage can rides. What

assumption must be fulfilled for the

maximum height to be reached?

Solution

Assumptions: 1. All water hits the can

2. If water hits the can travelling upwards at speed v, it reflects

and travels downward of speed v (by conservation of energy)

Thus the rate of change of momentum at the top of the can is

dm

P

2v

dt

At height h, o2 2 =2, Or v

vo2 2 gh

Change in momentum = W = mg

Thus,

dm

dm

1

W

W

2v

2 v 2 gh h

v

dt

dt

2g

2 dm

dt

2

o

2

o

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