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Time rate of change

of mass contained

within the control

volume at time t

dmcv

i m

e

m

dt

dmcv

i m

e

m

dt

i

e

mass in across inlet i

at time t

mass out across exit e

at time t

dmcv / dt

i

m

e

m

2

At time t the total mass within the system (cv) is:

m mcv(t) mi

At time t +t the total mass within the system (cv)

is:

mcv(t) mi mcv(t t) me

rearrangement

mcv(t t) mcv(t) mi me

The mass in cv during time interval t

equals the amount of mass that enters less

the amount that exits.

Dividing by t

mcv(t t) mcv(t) mi me

t

t

dmcv

i m

e

m

dt

Consider a small quantity of matter flowing with velocity

V across an incremental area dA in a time interval t

Amount

of

mass

crossing dA during

the time interval t

(Vnt)dA

Instantaneous rate of

mass flow across dA

as t goes to zero

definition of derivative is

fulfilled

VndA

Vn dA

A

4

Conditions:

The flow is normal to the boundary at

inlet and exit of cv

All intensive properties are uniform with

position over each inlet and exit

One-dimensional flow

dmcv

AV

AV

i i e e

dt

vi

ve

i

e

Conditions:

dmcv/dt = 0

m m

i

Integral form

mcv(t)

Conditions:

The total mass within the cv at an instant

t can be related to the local density

dV

d

dV

V

dt

i

Vn dA

A

i

Vn dA

A

Vn is mass flux

e

the energy contained

within the control

volume at time t

energy is being

transferred in by heat

at time t

energy is being

transferred out by

work at time t

transfer into the

control volume

accompanying mass

flow

2

2

dEcv

V

V

m

i ui i gzi m

e ue e gze

Q W

dt

2

2

For a control volume the work comes from two different sources:

1. Work associated with the fluid pressure as mass is introduced at inlets and

removed at exit.

2. All other contributions associated with for example rotating

shafts, electrical effects and so on.

Time rate change of

energy transfer by

work from the control

volume at exit

(peAe)Ve

W

cv ( peAe)Ve ( pi Ai )Vi

W

W

cv m

e( peve)e m

i ( pi vi )

W

9

Adding the different contribution of work into the energy rate balance:

If there is more than one inlet and exit the energy balance then should

include all the mass flow entering and exiting the system boundary:

10

If the energy is not uniform throughout the system the local energy

density should be considered by integrating over all the

11

At steady state : the mass flow rates and rates of energy transfer at the

boundary are constant with time.

conditions

dEcv

0

dt

dmcv

0

dt

It follows

1m

2

m

Dividnig by mass

flow rate

Only for the case of one inlet and one exit

12

Simplifications are normally needed when applying mass and energy

rate balances.

Educated assumptions has to be made

Considering one dimensional flow at inlet and exits

Equilibrium property relations are applied at location of inlet and exit

Steady state can be assumed if the cv shows periodic behavior

Heat transfer neglected if :

+ Outer surface is insulated

+ The area is small for heat transfer

+ The temperature gradient is small between the system and surr

+ If the gas or liquid passes so quickly that time for heat transfer

is not enough.

13

area in which the velocity of a gas or liquid

increases in the direction of flow

diffuser is a flow passage of varying crosssectional area in which the gas or liquid

decelerates in the direction of flow

14

For nozzles and diffusers the only work is flow work at locations where

mass enters and exits the control volume.

cv 0

W

For these devises the change in potential energy from inlet to exit is

negligible under most conditions.

At steady state the mass and energy balance reduces to

Mass balance

1m

2

m

The Qcv/m is also very small in most cases relative to the speed of the mass flow

15

16

Devices ( TURBINES)

Turbine is a device in which work is developed as a

result of a gas or liquid passing through a set of

blades attached to the shaft free to rotate.

state the energy rate

balance is given by:

Hydraulic turbine

installed in a dam

17

18

Compressor is a device in which work is done on a gas passing through it in

order to raise the pressure.

to change the state of liquid.

balance at steady state are the

same as the case for turbines

19

20

21

Heat exchanger is a device that transfer energy between fluids at different

temperatures by heat transfer modes

Common heat exchanger types. (a) Direct contact heat exchanger. (b) tube- within- a tube counterflow heat

exchanger. (c) tubewithin-a-tube parallel flow heat exchanger. (d) Cross-flow heat exchanger

cv 0

W

The heat transfer to the surrounding is small and neglected in most times

22

23

Throttling devices

Throttling device is a device that significantly reduces the pressure into the

line through which a gas or liquid flows

At steady state

Usually there is negligible heat transfer with the surrounding and change in potential energy

24

25

System integration

Combination of components to achieve some overall objective is called

system integration.

IR spectrometer

26

27

Transient analysis

Transient operation is a process in which the state of the system changes

with time.

Ex: startup or shutdown of turbines, compressors and motors.

Mass balance of a transient operation:

Integrating the mass rate balance from time o to t

28

Integrating the energy rate balance ignoring the effect of kinetic and potential energy

Special case: the states at the inlet and exits are constant with time, the specific enthalpies would be

constant and equation becomes:

29

30

Examples

And usually dropped

31

Examples

32

Examples

33

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