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# Control volume Analysis using Energy

## Conservation of mass principle for a control volume:

Time rate of change
of mass contained
within the control
volume at time t

dmcv
i m
e
m
dt
dmcv
i m
e
m
dt
i
e

## Time rate of flow of

mass in across inlet i
at time t

## Time rate of flow of

mass out across exit e
at time t

dmcv / dt
i
m

e
m

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## Conservation of mass for a control volume

At time t the total mass within the system (cv) is:

m mcv(t) mi
At time t +t the total mass within the system (cv)
is:

mcv(t) mi mcv(t t) me
rearrangement

mcv(t t) mcv(t) mi me
The mass in cv during time interval t
equals the amount of mass that enters less
the amount that exits.
Dividing by t

mcv(t t) mcv(t) mi me

t
t

dmcv
i m
e
m
dt

## Evaluating the mass flow rate

Consider a small quantity of matter flowing with velocity
V across an incremental area dA in a time interval t

Amount
of
mass
crossing dA during
the time interval t

(Vnt)dA

## Dividing both sides by t and taking the lim as t goes to zero

Instantaneous rate of
mass flow across dA
as t goes to zero
definition of derivative is
fulfilled

VndA

Vn dA
A
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## Forms of the mass rate balance

Conditions:
The flow is normal to the boundary at
inlet and exit of cv
All intensive properties are uniform with
position over each inlet and exit

One-dimensional flow

dmcv
AV
AV
i i e e
dt
vi
ve
i
e

Conditions:

## All properties are unchanging in time

dmcv/dt = 0

m m
i

Integral form

mcv(t)

Conditions:
The total mass within the cv at an instant
t can be related to the local density

dV

d
dV

V
dt
i

Vn dA
A
i

Vn dA
A

Vn is mass flux
e

## Time rate change of

the energy contained
within the control
volume at time t

## Net rate at which

energy is being
transferred in by heat
at time t

## Net rate at which

energy is being
transferred out by
work at time t

## Net rate of energy

transfer into the
control volume
accompanying mass
flow

2
2

dEcv
V
V
m
i ui i gzi m
e ue e gze
Q W
dt
2
2

## Evaluating work for a control volume

For a control volume the work comes from two different sources:
1. Work associated with the fluid pressure as mass is introduced at inlets and
removed at exit.
2. All other contributions associated with for example rotating
shafts, electrical effects and so on.
Time rate change of
energy transfer by
work from the control
volume at exit

(peAe)Ve

W
cv ( peAe)Ve ( pi Ai )Vi
W
W
cv m
e( peve)e m
i ( pi vi )
W
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## Forms of the control volume energy rate balance

Adding the different contribution of work into the energy rate balance:

## u + pv is already know to be the enthalpy h

If there is more than one inlet and exit the energy balance then should
include all the mass flow entering and exiting the system boundary:

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## General from of energy rate balance

If the energy is not uniform throughout the system the local energy
density should be considered by integrating over all the

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## Analyzing control volume at steady state

At steady state : the mass flow rates and rates of energy transfer at the
boundary are constant with time.
conditions

dEcv
0
dt
dmcv
0
dt

It follows

1m
2
m

Dividnig by mass
flow rate
Only for the case of one inlet and one exit
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## Modeling CV at steady state

Simplifications are normally needed when applying mass and energy
rate balances.
Educated assumptions has to be made
Considering one dimensional flow at inlet and exits
Equilibrium property relations are applied at location of inlet and exit
Steady state can be assumed if the cv shows periodic behavior
Heat transfer neglected if :
+ Outer surface is insulated
+ The area is small for heat transfer
+ The temperature gradient is small between the system and surr
+ If the gas or liquid passes so quickly that time for heat transfer
is not enough.

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## Nozzle is a flow passage of varying cross-sectional

area in which the velocity of a gas or liquid
increases in the direction of flow

diffuser is a flow passage of varying crosssectional area in which the gas or liquid
decelerates in the direction of flow

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## Nozzles and diffusers

For nozzles and diffusers the only work is flow work at locations where
mass enters and exits the control volume.

cv 0
W
For these devises the change in potential energy from inlet to exit is
negligible under most conditions.
At steady state the mass and energy balance reduces to
Mass balance

1m
2
m

## Energy rate balance

The Qcv/m is also very small in most cases relative to the speed of the mass flow
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## Nozzles and diffusers (example)

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Devices ( TURBINES)
Turbine is a device in which work is developed as a
result of a gas or liquid passing through a set of
blades attached to the shaft free to rotate.

## For turbines at steady

state the energy rate
balance is given by:
Hydraulic turbine
installed in a dam

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## Devices ( compressor and pumps)

Compressor is a device in which work is done on a gas passing through it in
order to raise the pressure.

## pump is a device in which work is done on a liquid passing through it in order

to change the state of liquid.

## The mass and energy rate

balance at steady state are the
same as the case for turbines

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## Devices ( heat exchanger)

Heat exchanger is a device that transfer energy between fluids at different
temperatures by heat transfer modes

Common heat exchanger types. (a) Direct contact heat exchanger. (b) tube- within- a tube counterflow heat
exchanger. (c) tubewithin-a-tube parallel flow heat exchanger. (d) Cross-flow heat exchanger

## Only work associated with the flow of mass

cv 0
W

The heat transfer to the surrounding is small and neglected in most times

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## Examples ( heat exchanger)

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Throttling devices
Throttling device is a device that significantly reduces the pressure into the
line through which a gas or liquid flows

At steady state

Usually there is negligible heat transfer with the surrounding and change in potential energy

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## Evaluating specific internal energy and enthalpy

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System integration
Combination of components to achieve some overall objective is called
system integration.

IR spectrometer

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## Examples ( system integration)

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Transient analysis
Transient operation is a process in which the state of the system changes
with time.
Ex: startup or shutdown of turbines, compressors and motors.

## Steady state is not valid in transient operations

Mass balance of a transient operation:
Integrating the mass rate balance from time o to t

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## Transient analysis ( energy balance)

Integrating the energy rate balance ignoring the effect of kinetic and potential energy

Special case: the states at the inlet and exits are constant with time, the specific enthalpies would be
constant and equation becomes:

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Examples

## Very small compared to first term

And usually dropped

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Examples

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Examples

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