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FLUX-CORED ARC WELDING

(FCAW)

CARBON STEEL FLUX CORED ELECTRODES CLASSIFICATION,


SFA NO-5.20

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

LOW ALLOY ELECTRODES FOR FCAW,


SFA NO-5.29

LOW ALLOY ELECTRODES FOR FCAW,


SFA NO-5.29

Suffix

T1,T4,T5

and

T8

indicates

general

grouping of electrodes that contain similar flux or


core components that produce distinctive welding
characteristics and similar slag system.

FLUX-CORED ARC WELDING


(FCAW)
An arc welding process that uses an arc
between a continuous filler metal electrode and
the weld pool with shielding from a flux
contained within the tubular electrode or from
an externally supplied gas and without the
application of pressure

FLUX-CORED ARC WELDING (FCAW)

Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) is a semi-automatic or automatic


arc welding process.

FCAW requires a continuously-fed consumable tubular electrode


containing a flux and a constant voltage or, less commonly, a
constant electric current.

An externally supplied shielding gas is sometimes used, but often


the flux itself is relied upon to generate the necessary protection
from the atmosphere.

The process is widely used in construction because of its high


welding speed and portability.

FCAW overcomes many of the restrictions associated with SMAW.

SCHEMATIC ILLUSTRATION FOR FCAW


PROCESS
Welding
Direction

TYPES OF FCAW

Self shielding type - that requires no shielding gas

Flux core in the tubular consumable electrode

This core contains more than just flux; it also contains


various ingredients that when exposed to the high
temperatures of welding generate a shielding gas for
protecting the arc.

This type of FCAW is preferable because it is portable


and the conditions of air flow do not need to be
considered.

Gas shielding type

Uses a shielding gas that must be supplied by an external


supply

This type was developed primarily for welding steels

Since it uses both a flux cored electrode and an external


shielding gas, one might say that it is a combination of
gas metal (GMAW) and flux-cored arc welding

This particular style of FCAW is preferable for welding


thicker and out-of-position metals.

However, it cannot be used in a windy environment

GAS SHIELD

SELF SHIELD

Advantages

FCAW may be an "all-position" process with the right


filler metals.

No shielding gas needed making it suitable for outdoor


welding and/or windy conditions.

A high-deposition rate process.

Some "high-speed" (e.g., automotive applications).

Low operator skill is required.

High quality weld deposit

DISADVANTAGES

Melted Contact Tip happens when the


electrode actually contacts the base metal,
thereby fusing the two.

Porosity the gases (specifically those from


the flux-core) dont escape the welded area
before the metal hardens, leaving holes in the
welded metal.

More costly filler material/wire as compared to


GMAW.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

FLUX CORED ELECTRODE


CONFIGURATIONS
Metal

BUTT

LAP
Flux

HEART

FLUX CORED ELECTRODE FORMING


OPERATION

Strip steel
Flux Hooper

U Forming Rolls

Flux Fill

To drawing operation

Closing Rolls

METHODS OF APPLICATIONS &


POSITION CAPABILITIES

Semiautomatic

Automatic

No manual process possible

All position welding

WELDABLE METALS & ALLOYS

Best wieldable are

Low carbon steels


Low alloy steels
High and medium carbon steels
Alloy steels
Certain grades of stainless steels

Using spl electrodes

Cast irons
Nickel alloys

WELDABLE THICKNESS RANGES


#

Depends on the type of shielding


#

Self shielding = Less penetration


Max penetration is 6 mm

Gas shielding = Deep penetration


Max penetration is 13 mm

WELDING CURRENT
Similar to GMAW
DCEP is most used
DCEN is sometimes used

DC CV is the power source


Current = 50 A 750 A

AC can used with spl flux


formulations

CC power supply is then used

Shielding Gases
Gas can be Inert, Reactive, or Mixtures of both
Gas flow rate is between 35- 45 CFH
Argon and Carbon Dioxide are the main three
gases used in GMAW
Carbon Dioxide most used
Carbon Dioxide + Argon mixture sometimes used

DEPOSITION RATES & QUALITY OF


WELDS

High deposition rates

High quality welds

LIMITATIONS & APPLICATIONS


Only for ferrous alloys
Removal of slag
Expensive

Replacing SMAW, GMAW (CO2 version) and SAW for thinner


materials

Automotive industry, Pipe industry, Tank industry, General


construction industries

ELECTRODES
#

SELF-SHIELDED ELECTRODES
Self-shielded electrodes rely solely on the materials in
the core of the wire for shielding the arc from the
atmosphere, purifying the weld metal and providing the
slag formers necessary to protect the molten weld
puddle
These electrodes do not rely on gas shielding as the
gas shielded types do; therefore, they can operate
more effectively in outdoor environments without a
windscreen

Best suited for welding low carbon steels and low alloy
steels

Uses a long electrical stick-out commonly from one to


four inches

Enables the electrode to burn off at a faster rate and


increases deposition

The preheating also decreases the heat available for


melting the base metal, resulting in a more shallow
penetration than the gas shielded process

A major drawback of the self shielded process is the


metallurgical quality of the deposited weld metal

#
Deoxidizing and denitrifying alloys, primarily
aluminum, will reduce ductility and impact strength at
temperatures

low

For this reason, the self shielding method is usually


restricted to less critical applications

The self shielding electrodes are more suitable for


welding in drafty locations than the gas shielded types

FUNCTIONS OF THE FLUX


INGREDIENTS

METAL CORED WIRES (GAS SHIELDED)


Metal cored electrodes are fabricated tubular
wires having a metallic sheath with the core
ingredients predominantly iron powder
Iron powder serves to increase the electrodes
deposition efficiency, while improving the speed of
travel
Because the slagging ingredients have been
replaced with iron powder, the slag residue
makes
up
less than 5% of the deposit
This feature provides the user the capability to
multipass without deslagging

A major advantage is very good shielding

No need for core ingredients such as aluminum

The weld metallurgy is cleaner

Suitable for welding not only mild steels, but also


low alloy steels in a wide range of strength and
impact
levels

#
The
electrical
#

gas shielded method uses a shorter


stickout than the self shielded process

Extensions from 1/2" to 3/4" are common on all


diameters, and 3/4" to 1-1/2" on larger diameters

Higher welding currents are also used with this


process, enabling high deposition rates

#
The auxiliary shielding helps to reduce the arc
energy
into a columnar pattern
#
The combination of high currents and the action
of the
shielding gas contributes to the deep
penetration inherent with this process
#
the

Both spray and globular transfer are utilized with


gas shielded process

SLAG SYSTEMS