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Wind Tunnel

Unit: V

WIND TUNNELS

Classification of wind tunnels


1. subsonic Wind Tunnel
2.Supersonic Wind Tunnel
Tunnel layouts and their design features
1.Subsonic Wind Tunnel
2.Supersonic tunnels
Helium Tunnel
Gun tunnels
Shock tubes
Various methods of flow visualizations

Geometric similarity
One of the most important requirements of

models is that there should be geometric


similarity between the model and the prototype.

By geometric similarity it is meant that ratios of

corresponding dimensions in the model and the


prototype should be the same.

Dynamic similarity
Equally

important as the geometric


requirement of dynamic similarity.

similarity

is

the

In an actual flight, when the body moves through a medium,

forces and moments are generated because of the viscosity


of the medium and also due to its inertia, elasticity and
gravity.
The inertia, viscous, gravity and elastic forces generated on

the body in flight can be expressed in terms of fundamental


units.
The

important force ratios can be expressed as non


dimensional numbers.

For example,

Reynolds number (Re) = Inertia force/Viscous force


Mach number = Inertia force/Elastic force
Froude number = Inertia force/Gravity force
The principle of dynamic similarity is that a scale model

under same Reynolds number and Mach number will have


forces and moments on it that can be scaled directly.
The flow patterns on the full scale body and the model will be

exactly similar.
It is not necessary and may not be possible that all the

aforesaid
non
dimensional
numbers
be
simulated
simultaneously in any experiment. Depending on the flow
regime or the type of experiments, certain non-dimensional
parameters are important.

For example, in a low speed flow regime,

simulation of Reynolds number in


experiments is important to depict
conditions of actual flight.

the
the

In a high speed flow, simulation of Mach

number is significant.
It may even be necessary and significant that

more than one non dimensional parameter are


simulated.
The

principle of dynamic similarity is


applicable in other fields of engineering too.

Shock tube
A shock tube is a device for producing a flow at very

high Mach number for a very short time.


The device consists of a long tube of uniform cross

section and with uniform internal dimensions.


The diaphragm separates a region in which the air is

compressed to a
evacuated region.

very

high

pressure,

from

an

When the pressure ration across it reaches a certain

value, the diaphragm burst (or it may be punctured by


a device incorporated in the tube) and air rushes at
very high speed into the evacuated region.

At the front of this body of air is a mixing region,

terminated by a normal shock wave, behind which


is a region of uniform flow at high Mach number.
This

passes over a model mounted at an


appropriate point in the initially evacuated region.

When the wave front reaches the end of the tube,

it is reflected back again and once it reaches the


model position the flow is spoilt.
Thus

the time for which the uniform flow is


achieved is extremely small, probably only a few
micro seconds.

Measurement

of the flow properties is very


difficult and many of the problems created by
the use of shock tube have consisted in the
development of special instruments for making
such measurement on a very small time scale.

The shock tube itself is cheap and easy to

construct

Gun Tunnel

The basic parts of the gun tunnel is

1. Driver section/ driver gas reservoir


2. Primary diaphragm
3. Piston
4. Driven Section/ test gas section or barrel
Section
5. Secondary Diaphragm
6. Nozzle Section
7. Test section
During the experiment, diaphragms are put in the

respective locations.
The driver is initially filled with a high pressure,

high speed of sound gas, (typically air, helium,

The driven tube is initially filled with the test gas

usually air, CO2 or nitrogen at much lower pressure.


Continuous increasing the pressure in the driver

section bursts the diaphragm and the high pressure


driver gas rushes in the barrel or driver section
which sets piston in motion.
Due to motion of the piston the driven gas gets

compressed and
adiabatically.

temperature

almost

a shock wave is created which


compresses and heats the driven gas

further

Also

raises

it

When the generated shock reaches the end of

the driven tube, the second diaphragm at the


nozzle entrance is ruptured and the processed
test gas expands through the nozzle into the
test section.

The shock is reflected from the end of the

driven tube, and a constant property region with


the heated and Compressed gas behind the
reflected shock is generated for very short time.
Thus

expanded test gas attains hypersonic


conditions in the Mach number.

Shadowgraph Method

Theshadowgraphmethodisparticularlysuitablewhere

therearelarge density gradients, such as in the flow


across a shock wave.
This method is simpler, less expensive and easy to

operate compared to other methods, but it does not


provide any fine details of the density field, and
therefore is usedfor qualitative analysis.
A shadow system comprises a light source, a collimating

lens, and a viewing screen or photographic plate.


When the gas is not flowing through the test section,

there is no densitygradient
illuminated uniformly.

and

the

screen

is

When the flow is established in the test section the

light beam will be refracted wherever there is a


density gradient. However, if the density gradient
were constant each ray will be deflected by the same
amount, and there would be no change in the
illumination on the screen.
If the density gradient varies there will be tendency

for the light rays to get diverge or converge. Bright


regions appear where the light rays converge, dark
regions where light rays diverge.The resulting image
on thescreen is thus aseries oflight and dark regions.
The shadow graph is particularly useful for viewing

shock waves.

Unit III

LINEARISED SUPERSONIC FLOWS

Governing equations
boundary conditions
Pressure coefficient, application to supersonic

airfoils, Lift, drag, pitching moment, symmetric


and asymmetric double wedge and biconvex
airfoils, General airfoil section, Second order
theory, Shock expansion technique.
Supersonic airfoils, flow, Airloads over wings of
finite span- supersonic leading edge and
subsonic leading edge, Delta wings, Method of
characteristics- application to supersonic
nozzle design