Robert Frost (1874-1963


A nature poet who used plain speech and short, traditional forms of lyrics Wrote: -“Nothing Gold Can Stay” -“The Road Not Taken”

F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940)

Celebrated the boom of the 1920’s and crash of 1930’s Wrote: -The Great Gatsby

T.S. Elliot (1888-1965)

Most dominant literary figure between the world wars Wrote: -The Waste Land -Tradition and the Individual Talent

Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961)

Wrote: -A Farewell to Arms -For Whom the Bell Tolls -The Old Man and the Sea -The Sun also Rises

Sylvia Plath (1932-1963)

Committed suicide by gassing herself in kitchen Wrote: -The Bell Jar -Ariel -The Colossus

E.E. Cummings (1894-1962)

One of the most notable poets of the 20th C., used creativity in his poems Wrote: -The Enormous Room -Tulips and Chimneys

William Faulkner (1897-1963)

Experimented in use of stream-of-consciousness technique in his novels Wrote: -The Sound and The Fury -As I Lay Dying -Absalom! Absalom!

Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941)

Influenced Hemingway and Faulkner Wrote: -Windy McPherson’s Son -Many Marriages -Marching Men

Upton Sinclair (1878-1968)

American novelist, essayist, playwright, and short story writer Wrote: -The Jungle

Willa Cather (1873-1947)

Considered one of the best chroniclers of pioneering life in the 20th C. Wrote: -My Antonia -One of Ours

Gertrude Stein (1874-1946)

The autobiography of Alice B. Toklas Tender Buttons The Making of Americans

Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951)

1st American to win Nobel Prize for Literature Wrote: -Arrowsmith -Main Street -Babbitt

John Steinbeck (1902-1968)

Considered foremost novelist of American Depression of the 1930’s Wrote: -The Grapes of Wrath -Of Mice and Men -The Red Pony

Stephen Crane (1871-1900)

Was internationally wellknown for his depiction of ghetto life and the deprivation of war Wrote: -The Red Badge of Courage -Maggie, A Girl of the Streets

James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851)

1st great national novelist Wrote: -The Leatherstocking series -The Last of the Mohicans

Mary Rowlandson (1635-1678)

Wrote about her 11-week captivity by Indians during an Indian massacre of 1676 Wrote: -The Narrative

Phillis Wheatly (1753-1784)

1st African-American to publish a book of fiction 1st Black woman poet in U.S. Wrote: -To S.M., a young African Painter, on seeing his works

Ralph Waldo Emerson

Famous Transcendentalist who wrote about nature and truth Wrote: -Nature -Self-Reliance -The Poet

Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911)

Active in abolition, women’s sufferage, and temperance movement Wrote: -Sketches of Southern Life

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882)

Best known American poet of the 1800’s Wrote: -“The Song of Hiawatha” -“The Courtship of Miles Standish”

Fredrick Douglass (1818-1895)

Most famous black American anti-slavery leader and orator of era Wrote: -Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave

Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864)

Rounded off the Puritan cycle in American writing Wrote: -The Scarlet Letter -“The Minister’s Black Veil” -The House of the Seven Gables

Thomas Paine (1737-1809)

Sold over 100,000 copies in 1st 3 months of publication of his 1st book Wrote: -Common Sense

Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672)

Wrote long, religious poems on conventional subjects and poems about daily life and her family 1st American Woman to publish a book 1st American to publish book of poems Wrote: -The 10th Muse Lately Sprung Up in America -“To My Dear and Loving Husband”

Louisa May Alcott (1832-1888)

Wrote: -Little Women -Little Men -8 Cousins -Rose in Bloom

Walt Whitman (1819-1892)

Wrote “The Song of Myself,” which he was most known for Wrote: -Leaves of Grass

Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens) (1835-1910)

Admired for capturing typical American experiences in a language which is realistic and charming Wrote: -The Adventures of Huck Finn -The Adventures of Tom Sawyer -Life on the Mississippi

Jack London (1876-1916)

Wrote: -The Call of the Wild -White Fang -Seawolf -The War of the Classes

Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811-1896)

Depicts slavery as evil b/c it divides families and destroys normal parental love Wrote: -Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Samson Occom (1723-1792)

Wrote one of the earliest autobiographies of an American Indian, which explains his conversion to Christianity and rejection of his tribe, Mohawks Wrote: -A Short Narrative of My Life

Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849)

Invented detective fiction Wrote: -“The Raven” -The Purloined Letter -The Gold Bug

Herman Melville (1819-1891)

Wrote: -Moby Dick -Typee -Bartleby, the Scrivner

John Smith (1580-1631)

Captain who started Jamestown colony Married Pocahontas Wrote: -A Map of VA, with a Description of the country

Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)

Leader of the The Great Awakening in New England and was a frightening Sermonist Wrote: -“Sinners at the Hands of an Angry God.”

Henry James (1843-1916)

Made important contributions to the literary theories Wrote: -The Portrait of a Lady -The Turn of the Screw -“The Art of Fiction”

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)

Wrote nearly 8,000 poems on love, nature, faith, and death Uses ambiguity, obscurity, and onomatopoeia

John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-1892)

Respected for his antislavery poems Wrote: -“Snowbound” -“Ichabod”

Cotton Mather (1663-1728)

Gave insight into his views on puritan society and wrote chronicles on settlement of N.E. Wrote: -Magnalia Christ I Americana

William Byrd II (1674-1744)

One of the 1st Americans to document appreciation of America’s vast wilderness Wrote: -History of the Dividing Line

Ambrose Bierce (1842-1914)

Noted for his Civil War tales Wrote: -Devil’s Dictionary -Tales of Soldiers and Civilians -Can Such Things Be?

Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906)

Well known for his poetry that was written in the dialect of southern blacks 1st African-American to gain national prominence as a poet Wrote: -Oak and Ivy -In Old Plantation Days

Jupiter Hammon (1711-1806)

1st black writer to publish in America Wrote: -Evening Thought; An Essay on the 10 Virgins -“An Address of Miss Phyllis Wheatly”

St. Jean de Crèvecoeur (1735-1813)

1st European writer to explore the concept of the American dream Wrote: -Letters From an American Farmer

Edward Taylor (1642-1729)

Finest example of 17th C. poetry in America Best writer of the Puritan Times Wrote: -Prepatory Meditations

John Winthrop (1588-1649)

Gave a famous speech conveying idea of Manifest Destiny in different wording Wrote: -“A Model of Christian Charity” -“On Liberty”

William Bradford (1589-1590)

One of the authors of The Mayflower Compact Wrote: -History of the Plymouth Plantation

Washington Irving (1789-1859)

1st American literary humorist Introduced non-fiction prose as a genre Wrote: -Rip Van Winkle -The Legend of SleepyHollow

William Cullen Bryant (1794-1878)

Wrote: -Thanatopsis Translated: -Illiad -Odyssey

Maya Angelou (1928-present)

*One of the greatest voices of contemporary literature *Has written 12 best sellers which includes I Know Why the Cage Bird Sings and her more current A Song Flung Up to Heaven *Another icon (Oprah) respectfully transcends Maya’s words, “If you get – give”

Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

Apprenticed printer turned witty writer. Best known for 1733 Poor Richard’s Almanac, which preached the value of hard work and thrift along with clever maxims for achieving wealth. Other Works: -Rules by which a Great Empire May be Reduced to a Small Once -Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America -The Autobiography

Emily Dickinson (1830-1886)

Wrote, at the last count, 1,789 poems. Only a handful of them were published during her lifetime – all anonymously and probably without her knowledge. Wrote: -“I shall know why, when time is over” -“I never lost as much but twice”

Harlem Renaissance (unofficially = 1919-mid 1930s)

Flowering of African American art, music, literature, and culture in the US led primarily by the African American community based in Harlem, NY Langston Hughes Zora Neal Hurston

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