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Leadership, Management,

Team Building and


Accountability
How to Operate Successfully
Leadership, Management,
Accountability and Team Building
 Leadership is setting a new direction or
vision for a group that they follow. A leader
is the spearhead for that new direction.
 Management controls or directs
people/resources in a group according to
principles or values that have already been
established.
 Team Building is the process of enabling a
group of people to reach their goal.
 Accountability an obligation or willingness
to accept responsibility or to account for
one's actions.
Leadership and Management
 Leadership without management
 Sets a direction or vision that others follow,
without considering too much how the new
direction is going to be achieved.
 Management without leadership
 Controls resources to maintain the status
quo or ensure things happen according to
already-established plans.
Leadership and Management
 Leadership combined with
management
 Does both - sets a new direction and
manages the resources to achieve it.
 Symbolic Leadership
 When a leader acts as a figure-head
without setting any direction.
Leadership Qualities

What makes a good


leader?
Leadership: Organizational or
individual perspective
 Organizational: The aim of an
organizational perspective is to
improve organizational performance
by identifying and developing
leadership potential.
Leadership: Organizational or
individual perspective
 The organizational task is
therefore one of:
 identifying the profile of leadership
qualities that will enhance organizational
performance;
 selecting individuals whose character,
skills and potential closely match that
profile; and
 developing those individuals so their
potential becomes a reality.
Leadership: Organizational or
individual perspective
 Individual: An individual's perspective
on leadership is very different:
 the aim is for the individual to develop
into a position of leadership.
 From this perspective, you are who you
are and if your leadership qualities are
not valued by the organization, then
you are going to find it difficult to
progress.
Leadership: Organizational or
individual perspective
 The individual task is therefore
one of:
 understanding one's own leadership
qualities or potential; and
 selecting an organization or context
where those attributes will be valued
Leadership Styles
Leadership Styles
 Modern leadership demands an
ability to adapt one's style to achieve
the maximum effectiveness.
 Excellent leaders are able to take
different approaches to suit the
various needs of differing situations.
Leadership Styles
 Modern leader will:
 develop flexibility and adaptability to
use any of the styles;
 recognize the different demands of
each situation;
 use the style(s) that will give
optimum success.
Eight Leadership
Styles
Leadership Styles
 I. ACTIVE BLUE:
People-oriented, motivator,
builds personal relationships, likeable,
interpersonal skills, cares for others
 When to use
 Commitment from others is critical, or
sensitive situations
 When not to use
 Decisions need to be forced through,
conflict is being avoided
ACTIVE BLUE

When to use
People-oriented, Commitment from
motivator, others is critical, or
builds personal sensitive situations
relationships,
likeable,
interpersonal skills,
cares for others
When not to use
Decisions need to
be forced through,
conflict is being avoided
Leadership Styles
 II. REFLECTIVE BLUE
Value-driven, has passion for
key issues, focuses on important themes,
champions the cause
 When to use
 The group has lost its sense of identity, or it
is doing too many unimportant things
 When not to use
 There is a problem that needs to be solved
with dispassionate objectivity (eg: technical
issues)
REFLECTIVE BLUE

When to use
Lost its
Value-driven, sense of identity
passion,
focuses ,
champions the cause

When not to use


There is a problem
that needs to be
solved with objectivity
Leadership Styles
 III. ACTIVE GREEN
Tries things that are new,
prototypes, introduces change, looks for
unexpected outcomes, creates new
opportunities, experiments
 When to use
 The group is 'stuck in a rut', or the status quo
needs to be challenged
 When not to use
 There are already too many initiatives under
way and some stability is needed
ACTIVE GREEN
When to use
The group is ‘
Tries new things, stuck in a rut', or
prototypes, the status quo
introduces change, needs to be challenged
looks for
unexpected outcomes,
creates new
opportunities,
experiments When not to use
There are already too
many initiatives
under way and
some stability is needed
Leadership Styles
 IV. REFLECTIVE GREEN
Develops long term vision, produces radical
ideas, foresees the future, anticipates what is
outside current knowledge.
 When to use
 Radical change is needed, change is a long
term activity
 When not to use
 There are immediate dangers, the group may
not survive in the short term
REFLECTIVE GREEN
When to use
Radical change is needed,
change is a
long term activity
Visionary,
produces radical ideas,
foresees the future,
anticipates what is outside
current knowledge.
When not to use
There are immediate
dangers,
the group may not
survive in the short term
Leadership Styles
 V. ACTIVE YELLOW
Takes action, produces results,
leads from the front, sets an example,
does what is asked of others
 When to use
 There is some inertia, or lack of
achievement has destroyed motivation
 When not to use
 The group is being too expedient,
current success may ebb in the future
ACTIVE YELLOW
When to use
Lack of achievement
has
Takes action, destroyed motivation
produces results,
leads from the front,
sets an example,
does what is
asked of others
When not to use
The group is being
too expedient,
current success maybe
low in the future
Leadership Styles
 VI. REFLECTIVE YELLOW
Observes, listens, clarifies goals,
establishes realistic expectations, makes
aims crystal clear
 When to use
 The direction is vague or expectations
have not been articulated
 When not to use
 There are already too many goals or too
much information
REFLECTIVE YELLOW
When to use
The direction is vague
or
expectations have
Observes,
not been articulated
listens,
clarifies goals,
establishes realistic
expectations,
makes aims crystal clear When not to use
Already too
many goals or
too much information
Leadership Styles
 VII. ACTIVE RED
Organizes, makes plans, sets
measurable goals, coordinates work of
different people, manages resources
 When to use
 There is chaos/lack of organization, or
there are no measures of achievement
 When not to use
 There are so many processes that
creativity has been stifled
ACTIVE RED
When to use
There is chaos/lack
of organization, or
there are no measures
Organizes, makes plans, of achievement
sets measurable goals,
coordinates work of
different people,
manages resources

When not to use


There are so many
processes
that creativity
has been stifled
Leadership Styles
 VIII. REFLECTIVE RED
Analyses, uses models, produces
explanations, compares other situations,
engages in intellectual debate
 When to use
 The situation is complex or driven by
technical solutions
 When not to use
 People's feelings are paramount, or the
group go round in circular arguments
REFLECTIVE RED
When to use
The situation is complex or
driven by
Analyses,
technical solutions
uses models,
produces explanations,
compares other
situations,
engages in
intellectual debate When not to use
People's feelings are
paramount,
or the group go round in
circular arguments
Leadership In Head Start
 Grantee and delegate agency must
propose, within the framework of
these regulations, the size of the
policy groups ,the procedures for the
election of parent members, and the
procedure for the selection of
community representatives.
Leadership In Head Start
 Grantee and delegate agencies must have
written policies that define the roles and
responsibilities of the governing body members
and that inform them of the management
procedures and functions necessary to
implement a high quality program.
 Grantee and delegate agencies must ensure that
appropriate internal controls are established and
implemented to safeguard Federal funds in
accordance with 45 CFR 1301.13.
Leadership In Head Start
 Grantee and delegate agencies must
develop and implement a systematic,
ongoing process of program planning;
 Grantees must establish and implement
procedures for the ongoing monitoring of
their own Early Head Start and Head Start
operations, as well as those of each of
their delegate agencies, to ensure that
these operations effectively implement
Federal regulations.
Management

Performance and Change


Management
Performance Management
 Performance Management is a process
aimed at improving performance (eg:
achievement of program objectives).
 Performance Management" is used in two
contexts:
 A way of maximizing performance of an
individual, team or organization
 A process for dealing with underperforming
individuals (or teams).
Performance Management
Principles
 I. Measurement
 Establish performance measures
(eg: sales turnover)
 Establish measurable behavioral goals
that will improve performance
(eg: making 30 prospective phone
calls a day)
 Measure current behaviors
(eg: logging actual phone calls)
Measurement
Establish
performance
measures
sales turnover

Establish Measure
measurable current
behavioral goals behaviors
30 calls a day
Performance Management
Principles
 II. Appraisal
 Compare the current behaviors with
the behavioral goals and identify the
differences
(eg: on average, 20 phone calls are
actually being made, giving a shortfall
of 10 phone calls).
Appraisal

Compare the
current behaviors
20 phone calls

The difference
10 calls

Behavioral goals
30 calls a day
Performance Management
Principles
 III. Action
 For each difference, plan how to bring actual
behaviors in line with the goals, in order to
improve the performance
(eg: introduce a revised telephone script that
qualifies the prospect more quickly,
shortening each phone call and enabling
more calls to be made in the time available)
 Implement the plan
(eg: issue the revised script to all telesales
people, perhaps with some training to
support its use)
Action
Behavioral goals
Actual behavior
30 calls a day
20 phone calls

Improve Performance
I. Revised script
II. Shortening calls
III. Enable more calls

Implement the plan


I. Issue revised script
II. Train Staff
Performance Management
Principles
 IV. Monitoring
 Check to see if the new plans are being
followed (eg: review a sample of phone call
recordings to determine whether the new
script is being used and check that it is
'workable').
 At appropriate times, return to the appraisal
stage to assess the impact of the changes on
the behavioral and performance measures
(eg: review the average number of calls
made per day and sales achieved).
Monitoring
Check new plans New Plans
I. Revised script I. Review calls
II. Shortening calls to see if script Return to
III. Enable more calls is followed Appraisal
II. Check to see if its
workable

Compare the
current behaviors

The difference

Behavioral goals
Performance
Management
Principles

Measurement Appraisal Action Monitoring


Maximum vs. Poor Performance
 Maximum  Poor performance
performance  1. Involves more
confrontation
 1. Collaboration
between management
 2. A formal process with
each step being written
and staff
down
 2. Can be informal, with  3. A process that escalates
written records only into disciplinary
recording revised proceedings and possible
targets termination
 3. A process, one of  4. Often involves analysis of
constant improvement one individual's
 4. Often involves behaviors/attitudes
analysis of the process
Performance Management
 Waste of Potentially Good Ideas
 Failure to listen and comment when
workers offer suggestions.
 Failure to encourage workers to offer
suggestions.
 Not asking workers advice on problems.
 Failure to read and study about the work
and about business methods.
Performance Management
 Failure to get from new employees
helpful ideas which they may bring
from previous employment.
 Not consulting enough with other
departments, such as technology, etc.
 Failure to consider or refer to the
proper person all usable suggestions
no matter where they come from.
Performance Management
 Failure to take proper interest in
meetings.
 Failure to benchmark performance of
organization with other similar
organizations and the sector as a
whole.
Change Management
Change Management
 Change management is a basic skill
in which most leaders and managers
need to be competent.
 There are very few working
environments where change
management is not important.
 In this section we will take a look at
the basic principles of change
management, and provides tips on
how those principles can be applied.
Change Management
 Five key principles that need to be kept in mind:
 Different people react differently to change.
 Everyone has fundamental needs that have to be
met.
 Change often involves a loss, and people go
through the "loss curve“.
 Expectations need to be managed realistically.
 Fears have to be dealt with.
Change Management
 Tips to apply to the principles when
managing change:
 1. Give people information - be open and
honest about the facts, but don't give over
optimistic speculation.
 2. For large groups, produce a
communication strategy that ensures
information is disseminated efficiently and
comprehensively to everyone (don't let the
grapevine take over). This helps to
recognize and deal appropriately with the
INDIVIDUAL REACTION to change.
Change Management
 3.Give people choices to make, and be
honest about the possible consequences
of those choices. Meet their CONTROL and
INCLUSION needs.
 4. Give people time, to express their
views, and support their decision making,
providing coaching, counseling or
information as appropriate, to help them
through the LOSS CURVE
Change Management
 5. Where the change involves a loss,
identify what will or might replace
that loss - loss is easier to cope with if
there is something to replace it. This
will help easy potential FEARS.
 6. Where it is possible to do so, give
individuals opportunity to express
their concerns and provide
reassurances - also to help easy
potential FEARS.
Change Management
 7. Keep observing good management
practice, such as making time for
informal discussion and feedback.
Management in Head Start
 All Early Head Start and Head Start grantee and
delegate agencies must use funds from USDA
Food and Consumer Services Child Nutrition
Programs as the primary source of payment for
meal services.
 Grantee and delegate agencies operating center-
based programs must establish and implement
policies and procedures to respond to medical and
dental health emergencies with which all staff are
familiar and trained.
Management in Head Start
 Grantee and delegate agencies must
ensure that all staff, consultants, and
volunteers abide by the program's
standards of conduct.
 The organizational structure must
address the major functions and
responsibilities assigned to each staff
position and must provide evidence of
adequate mechanisms for staff
supervision and support.
Management in Head Start
 Grantee and delegate agencies must
establish and maintain efficient and
effective record-keeping systems to
provide accurate and timely
information regarding children,
families, and staff and must ensure
appropriate confidentiality of this
information.
Establishing a Team
How to functions as a
team
Team Building
Team Building
 “Team” is a group of people working
towards a common goal and/or objective
 “Terms used in a team building context.
 A group of people;
 Synergy;
 Having one aim;
 Whole > Sum;
 Co-operation;
Team Building

 Flexibility;
 Working together;
 Reporting to one leader and
 Serving one customer
Team Building
 From the definition of a team, you
have to define the common goal or
objective of the team.
 For example, let us suppose that the
goal or objective is 'to increase the
sales of the company'.
 Sales people; Sell to clients;
 Sales Manager; Ensures the Sales
People are equipped to sell properly;
Team Building
 Marketing Manager; Designs a product that’s
attractive to potential buyers
 Accountants; Control the costs of the product
to keep it competitively priced
 Administrators; Process the applications
quickly so that the client does not lose
patience and move to a competitor company
Team Building
 Personnel; Recruit high performing
sales people, and provide training to
maximize sales
Team Building
 Stationery suppliers; Provide
marketing literature that looks
professional and makes the product
seem attractive
 Cleaning staff; Keep sales offices
looking attractive, so that clients and
prospects feel comfortable visiting
the branches
Team Building
 Stages in team building:
 Clarify the team goals and objectives
 Identify those issues which inhibit the
team from reaching their goals and
objectives
 Address the issues, remove the
inhibitors and enable the goals and
objectives to be achieved
Team Building
 Team Building Scale
Individual skills Relationships
and perceptions between people

The culture of
the organization Relationships
between teams
Team Dynamics
Team Dynamics
 Team Dynamics are the unseen forces that
operate in a team between different
groups of people.
 For example, in a small team of six people,
there may be two people who have a
particularly strong friendship.
 Friendship is a "natural force" that may
have an influence on the rest of the team,
and can affect the team positively or
negatively.
Team Dynamics
 The positive effect of a strong
friendship in a team might be:
 friends communicate a lot together
 ...which naturally results in other members
being drawn into the discussion
 ...which results in a good 'social' feel to
the group
 ...which makes people enjoy being in the
group
 ...which improves motivation and
commitment
Team Dynamics
 The negative effect of a strong friendship
might be:
 to cause other people to feel excluded...
 ... are less likely to include the friends in decision
making
 ... are likely to be in groups
 …information may not flow across the whole group,
but only within the subgroups
 … miscommunication may lead to misunderstanding
and poor collective performance
Team Dynamics
 How do you recognize team
dynamics?
 Personality styles (eg: including or
excluding people)
 Team Roles
 Office layout (eg: cupboards dividing
teams into two)
 Tools and technology (eg: email, bulletin
board, information pool enabling hidden
communication).
Team Dynamics
 Organizational culture (eg: company cars
acting as status symbols to separate
groups of employees)
 Processes/methodologies/procedures (eg:
problem-solving methodology) etc.
Team Dynamics
 How can team dynamics be managed
constructively?
 look for the team dynamics - the 'natural
forces' at play
 determine whether they are acting for
good or ill,
 make interventions to make the effect of
those dynamics more positive.
Accountability
Owning It: How Personal
Accountability Can Transform
an
Organization
Accountability
 For organizations that consistently struggle to meet
goals, worker accountability may be an issue.
 Symptoms of accountability deficiencies include
 -blaming and finger-pointing,
 -unclear and changing expectations and
 -difficulty retaining quality employees.
 When any or all of these issues occur, organizations
should consider transforming their employees’
behaviors and attitudes with the power of personal
accountability.
Accountability
 When employees take ownership of
tasks and plans are clear, personal
accountability emerges,
 -lowering stress,
 -increasing productivity,
 -influencing job satisfaction and
 -propelling the organization to meet
its goals and objectives.
Accountability Deficiencies
Blame and Finger-Pointing
 When personal accountability is absent,
pinning the blame on others is one of the
most common behaviors employees
engage in when things go wrong.
 Do any of these charges sound familiar?
 § "It's because of those strict regulations."
 § "Our partner dropped the ball."
 § “Parents just don't participate."
 § “The warehouse doesn’t delivery
supplies timely."
Blame and Finger-Pointing
 Blame and finger-pointing stem from a
lack of personal accountability and a
fear of punishment.
 In this type of environment, employees
talk about – rather than to – each other.
 Also, informal meetings that occur after
meetings (hallway discussions), are
where real opinions are heard.
Blame and Finger-Pointing
 When employees equate being “held
accountable” with demotion or job
loss, they will refrain from accepting
responsibility for the outcomes of
their work.
 If the manager doesn’t model
accountability, blame and finger-
pointing will be the norm for their
employees.
Blame and Finger-Pointing
 When an accountable employee
does something wrong, he or she will
say, "This is what I did, and I accept
responsibility.
 This is what I learned from my
mistake and this is how I will
change."
Unclear and Changing
Expectations
 When managers lack personal
accountability, they are often unclear
with their expectations or routinely
change objectives, resulting in
confusion and incomplete goals.
Unclear and Changing
Expectations
Sample Expectations
 Unclear:  Clear:
 § "Diversity is very  § “To embrace our diversity,
important and we will we will be implementing
embrace it." monthly diversity awareness
seminars.”
 § "We will change our
IT systems to keep up
 § “We need to update our
firewalls to keep up with the
with the times."
latest viruses.”
 § "We will focus on  § “Our focus on innovation
innovation this year." this year will require us to
brainstorm better service
techniques and processes,
and improve quality.”
Unclear and Changing
Expectations
 Without any kind of clarity, the
outcome of these types of expectations
is no outcome at all.
 Employees want to know what road to
travel, the tasks they need to
accomplish and milestones along the
way.
Unclear and Changing
Expectations
 To hold employees accountable,
 -tasks must be clearly defined up-front,
 -the expected outcomes must be
explained,
 -the stakes of completing/not completing
the task made clear, and
 -all parties must agree upon action steps
by certain dates.
Difficulty Retaining Quality
Employees
 Often a lack of accountability leads to
equal rewards for unequal efforts
among employees, spurring the best
workers to see no value in working
hard to further the goals of the
organization.
 High achievers will ultimately leave
organizations that do not hold
employees accountable.
Difficulty Retaining Quality
Employees
 When a lack of measurement exists,
good employees will not prosper.
 To retain high achievers, everyone
must be held accountable for their
actions.
Other Challenges
 Additional symptoms that point to a
lack of accountability :
 § Ineffective teamwork
 § Poor meeting management
 § Indirect and unclear communication
 § Gossip
 § Conflict
Personal Accountability Training
 Personal
accountability
training is an
effective way to
shift the corporate
mindset to one of
responsibility,
empowerment and
accountability
Purpose of personal
accountability training
 I. Help employees understand the
importance of accountability
 II. Identify why the organization
values accountable employees
 III. Discuss each individual's role in
the process, and
 IV. Encourage employees to
reexamine their attitudes and
actions.
The Challenges of Poor
Workforce Accountability
 When everything is working well,
accountability is understood and embraced
in an organization. However, when problems
emerge, excuses seem to be the acceptable
alternative.
 Some of the most common signs that
personal accountability is absent includes
 blaming others,
 nebulous expectations and
 the inability to retain high achievers.
Steps to Achieving Personal
Accountability
 Workers must take ownership of a task
and its outcome at the time it was
assigned.
 Employees must have a preexisting
mindset that they can and will get tasks
accomplished.
 Once employees take responsibility, a
clear agreement must be in place
between the task assigner and the task
owner.
Steps to Achieving Personal
Accountability
 The agreement must clearly articulate
the task, the expected results and
when it must be completed.
 Employees must be willing to take
personal action to see the results
occur.
 Employees must be willing to answer
for outcomes, whether good or bad.
Benefits of Accountable
Employees
 § Personal action is taken to overcome
obstacles and ensure results are
achieved
 § Results are on target because the
task, owner, expected results and
deadline are clear
 § Individuals display a willingness to
answer for the results of their actions
Benefits of Accountable
Employees
 § Productivity increases because employees,
teams and entire departments are more effective
and individuals agree to own tasks
 § Job satisfaction improves because tasks are
clearly defined and success occurs more
 § Negative events become learning events
 § Workarounds and project restarts are
significantly reduced
Head Start Accountability
 Every year, each agency must conduct
and maintain a “Program Self
Assessment”.
 Every three years, a Head Start
grantee must conduct and maintain a
“Community Assessment,” designed to
ensure that the program is serving the
greatest number of eligible children in
the local area. Updated annually
Head Start Accountability
 Every Head Start program must
conduct a “Wage Comparability”
study every three years to assure
that wages paid to Head Start staff
are in line with those paid for
comparable jobs in the community
served by that Head Start grantee.
Head Start Accountability
 Each program must provide every
enrolled child with dental, mental health
and health screenings, along with a
developmental screening, and maintain
files on the results of these screenings.
 For each child with a disability, a
“Transition Plan” must be maintained and
implemented in accordance with IDEA.
Head Start Accountability
 Local programs must have written
agreements with vendors and service
providers and community partners.
 Each program must meet the
performance standards for each child
and family and have documentation
of such progress (individualized family
plans, child’s education plan, etc.).
Head Start Accountability
 Every three years, USDA conducts an
on-site audit with respect to the
eligibility of children in the program
and on food servings (making sure
that each meal has met the Daily
Requirements).
 State and Local Requirements;
i.e. state child care licensing
standards.