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Transport Channel Processing

Introduction

Introduction

Transport Channel Processing


Encoding
Modulation techniques
Scrambling?

eNB
Transport Block

?)

?
Radio Channel

Scope and objectives


Scope
Error correction and error protection
Scrambling codes in LTE
Modulation

Objectives
Describe LTE physical layer processing
Explain the principle of error correction
Describe CRC and FEC coding
Explain the problem of multipath
propagation
Describe the use of scrambling in LTE
Describe the use of modulation

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> Overview
Overview

Transport Channel Processing


CRC
Error Detection

Original Data

CRC
Generator

x bits

Original Data x
bits

Turbo Encoder

FEC

Data

Error Correction
Interleaver

Modulation

Encoder
#1

P1

Encoder
#2

P2

M
U
X

Checksum 24 bits

Transport Channel
Processing

Physical layer processing


Transport Block

Tx

Rx

CRC

CRC check

Coding

Decoding

Scrambling

Descrambling

Modulation

Demodulation

OFDM(IFFT)

OFDM(FFT)

Radio Channel

Cellular Error Correction


Analog Cellular
Transmitted Signal

Received Signal + Noise

Digital Cellular
Transmitted Signal

Received Signal + Noise

Digital Cellular Error Correction

With minimal data...


Errors are uncorrectable

EM
5 Main Street
Littletown

With redundant data...


Errors are correctable

Eddie McConnell
5 Main Street
Littletown LT1701

CRC Coding
Transmitter

Original Data
x bits

CRC
Generator

Original Data
1001011010

Checksum 24 bits
110010110011

RF
Transmission Path

Receiver

Received Data
1001010010

Received Checksum
110010110011

CRC
Generator

If Checksums do not match,


there exists at least one error

Re-Generated Checksum
110010110001

FEC Coding
Transport Block

Tx

Rx

CRC

CRC check

Coding

Decoding

Scrambling

Descrambling

Modulation

Demodulation

OFDM(IFFT)

OFDM(FFT)

Radio Channel

FEC Coding Approaches


Block Codes
Ex. transmit New York City to represent NYC
Continuous Codes
Data processed continuously through FEC
Built-in redundancy correct bit errors
LTE uses Turbo codes

Continous Codes
Transmitter
Original Data
00011011...

FEC
Generator

FEC Encoded data


1010011100110110...

RF
Transmission Path

Receiver

Decoder

Original Data
00011011

Multipath Propagation

Varying signal power


Burst errors

Time-delayed replicas

Turbo Coding
Parallel, recursive & systematic
Detect/correct errors - digital data, different channels

Turbo Encoder

Turbo Decoder
D

Data

D
Decoder #1

Encoder #1

Interleaver

Encoder #2

P1

P2

MUX

DEMUX

Interleaver

De-Interleaver

P1
Interleaver

D
Decoder #2

P2

Decoded
Data

Scrambling in LTE

Inter cell interference


Cell specific bit-level scrambling
ICIC

Tx

Rx

CRC

CRC check

Coding

Decoding

Scrambling

Descrambling

Modulation

Demodulation

OFDM(IFFT)

OFDM(FFT)

Radio Channel

Modulation
Tx

Rx

CRC

CRC check

Coding

Decoding

Scrambling

Descrambling

Modulation

Demodulation

OFDM(IFFT)

OFDM(FFT)

Radio Channel

Modulation schemes

10

00

11

01

QPSK
2 bits/symbol

1111

111111

16-QAM
4 bits/symbol

64-QAM
6 bits/symbol

OFDM
Tx

Rx

CRC

CRC check

Coding

Decoding

Scrambling

Descrambling

Modulation

Demodulation

OFDM(IFFT)

OFDM(FFT)

Radio Channel

Summary

Summary

Summary

Cyclic Redundancy Check


Channel coding
Cell specific bit-level Tx
scrambling
Data modulation
CRC
OFDM

Rx

CRC check

Decoding

Coding

Scrambling

Descrambling

Modulation

Demodulation

OFDM(IFFT)

OFDM(FFT)
Radio Channel

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