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expansion volume by temperature

expansion volume by temperature

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Hole Size

happens to the size of the hole when the metal is

heated?

A) It gets larger.

B) It gets smaller.

C) It stays the same.

Microscopic Spacing

motion.

Vibration increases with

temperature

Spacing increases with

temperature

Change in Volume

expands when the atomic

spacing increases.

Increase temperature

increase volume.

same as a density decrease.

T

V

T + T

V + V

V V0 T

the relationship between

volume and temperature is

linear.

expansion is .

V V0 T

Material

Quartz

Pyrex glass

Glass

Steel

Aluminum

Mercury

Water

Gasoline

Ethyl alcohol

Air (1 atm)

Coefficient

1 x 10-6 C-1

9 x 10-6 C-1

27 x 10-6 C-1

35 x 10-6 C-1

75 x 10-6 C-1

180 x 10-6 C-1

210 x 10-6 C-1

950 x 10-6 C-1

1100 x 10-6 C-1

3400 x 10-6 C-1

Gas Tank

and filled to the top with

gasoline, = 950 x 10-6 C-1,

at 18 C. The car sits in the

sun and reaches a

temperature of 32 C.

How much gasoline

overflows from the tank?

temperature.

Solve for V = V0 T.

(950 x 10-6 C-1)(72 L)(14 C)

V = 0.95 L

small in comparison.

You get more gas if you fill it

when its cool!

Cold Water

uniformly with temperature.

pattern.

Below 4 C water expands

as it cools

Very cold water stays on top

Ice is even less dense

Stretching Solids

that are quite different.

matter most.

T

L

T + T

L + L

Other changes are still

present, less magnitude

Linear Expansion

applies to the three

dimensions.

If the change is equal in all

directions is split in thirds.

The coefficient of linear

expansion in solids () is

usually one third of .

V0 L0 H 0W0

V LH 0W0 L0 HW0 L0 H 0 W

V (T

L0 ) H 0W0

3

H 0 )W0

3

L0 H 0 (T W0 )

3

L0 (T

L TL0

/3

Seasonal Changes

suspension bridge is 200 m

long at 20 C.

If the temperature goes from

-30 C to +40 C, what

contraction and expansion is

possible?

Solve for L = L0 T.

First in winter,

L = -0.12 m

Then in summer,

(12 x 10-6 C-1)(200 m)(20 C)

L = 0.048 m

Thermal Stress

A change in length is

associated with a stress.

F

L

Y

A

L0

a change in length.

L TL0

temperature, its a thermal

stress.

F TYL0

YT

A

L0

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