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# Thermal Expansion

Hole Size

## A rectangular sheet of metal has a circular hole. What

happens to the size of the hole when the metal is
heated?
A) It gets larger.
B) It gets smaller.
C) It stays the same.

Microscopic Spacing

## Atoms are in constant

motion.
Vibration increases with
temperature
Spacing increases with
temperature

Change in Volume

## The volume of matter

expands when the atomic
spacing increases.
Increase temperature
increase volume.

## A volume increase is the

same as a density decrease.

T
V

T + T
V + V

V V0 T

## For small volume changes

the relationship between
volume and temperature is
linear.

expansion is .

V V0 T

Material
Quartz
Pyrex glass
Glass
Steel
Aluminum
Mercury
Water
Gasoline
Ethyl alcohol
Air (1 atm)

Coefficient
1 x 10-6 C-1
9 x 10-6 C-1
27 x 10-6 C-1
35 x 10-6 C-1
75 x 10-6 C-1
180 x 10-6 C-1
210 x 10-6 C-1
950 x 10-6 C-1
1100 x 10-6 C-1
3400 x 10-6 C-1

Gas Tank

## A 72 L steel gas tank is open

and filled to the top with
gasoline, = 950 x 10-6 C-1,
at 18 C. The car sits in the
sun and reaches a
temperature of 32 C.
How much gasoline
overflows from the tank?

## The gasoline expands with

temperature.
Solve for V = V0 T.
(950 x 10-6 C-1)(72 L)(14 C)
V = 0.95 L

## The tank expansion was

small in comparison.
You get more gas if you fill it
when its cool!

Cold Water

## Most substances expand

uniformly with temperature.

## Water does not follow the

pattern.
Below 4 C water expands
as it cools
Very cold water stays on top
Ice is even less dense

Stretching Solids

## Solids can have dimensions

that are quite different.

matter most.

T
L

T + T
L + L

## Focus on one dimension

Other changes are still
present, less magnitude

Linear Expansion

## The change in volume

applies to the three
dimensions.
If the change is equal in all
directions is split in thirds.
The coefficient of linear
expansion in solids () is
usually one third of .

V0 L0 H 0W0
V LH 0W0 L0 HW0 L0 H 0 W
V (T

L0 ) H 0W0
3

H 0 )W0
3

L0 H 0 (T W0 )
3
L0 (T

L TL0

/3

Seasonal Changes

## The steel bed of a

suspension bridge is 200 m
long at 20 C.
If the temperature goes from
-30 C to +40 C, what
contraction and expansion is
possible?

## Use linear expansion.

Solve for L = L0 T.

First in winter,

## (12 x 10-6 C-1)(200 m)(-50 C)

L = -0.12 m

Then in summer,
(12 x 10-6 C-1)(200 m)(20 C)
L = 0.048 m

Thermal Stress

A change in length is
associated with a stress.

F
L
Y
A
L0

## Temperature change causes

a change in length.

L TL0

## If the stress is due to

temperature, its a thermal
stress.

F TYL0

YT
A
L0

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