You are on page 1of 11

Thermal Expansion

Hole Size

A rectangular sheet of metal has a circular hole. What


happens to the size of the hole when the metal is
heated?
A) It gets larger.
B) It gets smaller.
C) It stays the same.

Microscopic Spacing

Atoms are in constant


motion.
Vibration increases with
temperature
Spacing increases with
temperature

Change in Volume

The volume of matter


expands when the atomic
spacing increases.
Increase temperature
increase volume.

A volume increase is the


same as a density decrease.

T
V

T + T
V + V

V V0 T

Coefficient of Volume Expansion

For small volume changes


the relationship between
volume and temperature is
linear.

The coefficient of volume


expansion is .

V V0 T

Material
Quartz
Pyrex glass
Glass
Steel
Aluminum
Mercury
Water
Gasoline
Ethyl alcohol
Air (1 atm)

Coefficient
1 x 10-6 C-1
9 x 10-6 C-1
27 x 10-6 C-1
35 x 10-6 C-1
75 x 10-6 C-1
180 x 10-6 C-1
210 x 10-6 C-1
950 x 10-6 C-1
1100 x 10-6 C-1
3400 x 10-6 C-1

Gas Tank

A 72 L steel gas tank is open


and filled to the top with
gasoline, = 950 x 10-6 C-1,
at 18 C. The car sits in the
sun and reaches a
temperature of 32 C.
How much gasoline
overflows from the tank?

The gasoline expands with


temperature.
Solve for V = V0 T.
(950 x 10-6 C-1)(72 L)(14 C)
V = 0.95 L

The tank expansion was


small in comparison.
You get more gas if you fill it
when its cool!

Cold Water

Most substances expand


uniformly with temperature.

Water does not follow the


pattern.
Below 4 C water expands
as it cools
Very cold water stays on top
Ice is even less dense

Stretching Solids

Solids can have dimensions


that are quite different.

The long dimension may


matter most.

T
L

T + T
L + L

Focus on one dimension


Other changes are still
present, less magnitude

Linear Expansion

The change in volume


applies to the three
dimensions.
If the change is equal in all
directions is split in thirds.
The coefficient of linear
expansion in solids () is
usually one third of .

V0 L0 H 0W0
V LH 0W0 L0 HW0 L0 H 0 W
V (T

L0 ) H 0W0
3

H 0 )W0
3

L0 H 0 (T W0 )
3
L0 (T

L TL0

/3

Seasonal Changes

The steel bed of a


suspension bridge is 200 m
long at 20 C.
If the temperature goes from
-30 C to +40 C, what
contraction and expansion is
possible?

Use linear expansion.


Solve for L = L0 T.

First in winter,

(12 x 10-6 C-1)(200 m)(-50 C)


L = -0.12 m

Then in summer,
(12 x 10-6 C-1)(200 m)(20 C)
L = 0.048 m

Thermal Stress

A change in length is
associated with a stress.

F
L
Y
A
L0

Temperature change causes


a change in length.

L TL0

If the stress is due to


temperature, its a thermal
stress.

F TYL0

YT
A
L0

next