You are on page 1of 22

Group II

Native Minerals
Carbonates
JHAN-PAULE ARBIZO
FATIMA TYREZA JOY JUAN
RALPH RENSO RONQUILLO
MARY ANN GALLEGO

Native Minerals

Elementsthat occur in nature in uncombined form with a


distinctmineral structure

The elemental class includesmetalsand intermetallicelements

Naturally occurringalloys,semi-metalsandnon-metals

Highly Valued

RARE

Gold - Au - Aurum
Criteria
Hardness

2.5 3.0

Streak

Gold

Cleavage

None

Fracture

Hackly,

Habit

Octahedral

Luster

Metallic , Opaque

Crystallography

Cubic

Specific Grav

15.6 19.3

Occurrence

Quartz veins and Placer Deposits

Use

Jewelry,Gemstone, Currency

Copper Cu - Cuprum
Criteria
Hardness

2.5 3.0

Streak

Copper-red

Cleavage

None

Fracture

Hackly,

Habit

Octahedral

Luster

Metallic , Opaque

Crystallography

Cubic

Specific Grav

8.7 8.9

Occurrence

Oxidized Copper Deposits

Use

Construction Material, Alloy


former, Conductor

Sulfur - S
Criteria
Hardness

1.5 2.5

Streak

White

Cleavage

None

Fracture

Conchoidal

Habit

Tabular

Luster

Non-metallic , Resinous

Crystallography

Orthorhombic

Specific Grav

2.1

Occurrence

Volcanic Fumaroles

Use

Gunpowder,Vulcanism

Graphite / Diamond - C
Criteria

Diamond

Graphite

Hardness

10

1-2

Streak

white

Black

Color

Colorless

Black

Cleavage

Perfect

Perfect

Fracture

None

None

Habit

Octahedral

Hexagonal

Crystallogra
phy

Cubic

Rhombohedral

Occurence

Ultramafic Rock

Metamorphic Rock

Luster

Adamantine

Submetallic,
Opaque

Use

Gemstone,drillbi
t

Writing Material

Silver Ag - Argentum
Criteria

Argentum

Hardness

2.5 3.0

Streak

Silver white

Color

Silver white

Cleavage

None

Fracture

Hackly

Habit

Acicular

Crystallography

Cubic

Occurence

Sulfides, Hydrothermal

Luster

Metallic , Opaque

Use

Gemstone,Industrial
use

Platinum Pt
Criteria

Platinum

Hardness

4 4.5

Streak

Gray- silver

Color

Gray silver

Cleavage

None

Fracture

Hackly

Habit

Poorly formed

Crystallography

Cubic

Occurence

Ultramafic Rock

Luster

Metallic, opaque

Use

Laboratory
equipment,
Chemotherapy

Carbonates
Rocks

composed mainly of calcium carbonate, CaCO 3.

Formed

by precipitation from water; either straight from


the water, or induced by organisms, to make their shells
or skeletons, and they form in many environments.

Three

main minerals that form carbonates:

Calcite (CaCO3), which comes in high magnesium and low


magnesium forms.

Aragonite (CaCO3), which has a different structure to calcite.

Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2), a magnesium rich carbonate produced


by diagenesis.

In Group

CALCITE
CaCo3

Composition
Variable
Formula
Streak
Hardness

Carbonates; Calcite Group


Calcium carbonate, sometimes with impurities of iron,
magnesium, or manganese, and occasionally zinc and
cobalt
(Ca,Fe,Mg,Mn,Zn,Co)CO3
White
3

Crystal System Hexagonal


Crystal Habit
Luster

Crystalline, granular, stalactitic, concretionary, massive,


rhombohedral
Vitreous

Cleavage

Rhombohedral

Fracture

Conchoidal

Striking
Features

Hardness, cleavage, fluorescence, and effervescence


with hydrochloric acid

Environment

Calcite is a constituent of all mineral environment,


including sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic

Use

Acid neutralization, Sorbents, cement, lime

In Group
Composition
Variable
Formula

Carbonates; Aragonite group


Calcium carbonate, sometimes with some strontium,
lead, and zinc
(Ca,Sr,Pb,Zn)CO3

Streak

White

Hardness

3.5 - 4

Crystal System Orthorhombic


Crystal Habit
Luster

Pseudohexagonal,
prismatic
columnar, globular, reniform,
stalactitic, internally banded

crystals,
acicular,
pisolitic, coralloidal,

Vitreous, dull

Cleavage

Prismatic ; Indiscernible

Fracture

Sub- Conchoidal

Striking
Features

Poor cleavage, twinning habits, strong effervescence,


and low hardness

Environment

Sedimentary formations and evaporite deposits, hot


spring deposits, hydrothermal ore veins, igneous trap
rock environments, and metamorphic schist

Use

Replication of reef conditions,

ARAGONITE
CaCo3

In Group
Composition
Streak
Hardness

Carbonates
Basic copper carbonate
Light blue
3.5-4

Crystal System Monoclinic


Crystal Habit
Luster

AZURITE
Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2

Massive, prismatic, stalactitic, tabular


Vitreous or dull

Cleavage

Prismatic

Fracture

Conchoidal or splintery

Striking
Features

Deep blue color, blue streak, and common


association with green Malachite

Environment
Use

As a secondary mineral in the oxidation


zone of copper deposits
minor
ore
of
ornamental stone

copper,

gemstone,

In Group
Composition
Variable
Formula

Carbonates; Aragonite Group


Lead carbonate, sometimes containing some silver and
chromium
(Pb,Ag,Cr)CO3

Streak

White

Hardness

3 - 3.5

Crystal System Orthorhombic


Crystal Habit
Luster

Massive granular, reticulate, tabular to equant crystals


Greasy to adamantine. Fibrous growths, which are rare,
may be silky

Cleavage

Prismatic

Fracture

Conchoidal

Striking
Features

Luster and heaviness associated with the light color

Environment
Use

Forms as a secondary mineral from oxidized lead


deposits, especially in arid regions
Key ingredient in lead paints

CERUSSITE
PbCO3

Dolomite CaMg(CO3)2
Physical Properties
Cleavage

{1011}

hardness

Luster
Luster
Color
Color

Vitreous;
Vitreous; Pearl
Pearl
Colorless
Colorless ,white,
,white, gray
gray ,,
green
green ,, brown,
brown, black
black
Isostructural
Isostructural

Diagnostic Features

In cold, dilute HCL large


fragments are slowly
attacked but soluble with
effervescence only in hot
HCL

Occurrence

Extensive sedimentary
strata

Ankerite CaFe(CO3)2
Physical Properties
Cleavage

{1011}

hardness

Luster
Luster
Color
Color

Vitreous;
Vitreous; Pearl
Pearl
Colorless,white,gray
Colorless,white,gray ,,
green
green ,, brown,
brown, black
black
Isostructural

Diagnostic Features

Color yellow-brown to
brown and similar
physical and chemical
properties to dolomite

Occurrence

Extensive sedimentary
strata

Magnesite MgCO3
Physical Properties
Cleavage

{1011}

hardness

Specific
Specific gravity
gravity
Luster
Luster

3.96
3.96
Vitreous
Vitreous

Color
Color

Light
Light to
to dark
dark brown
brown
Isostructural

Diagnostic Features

Distinguished from other


carbonates by its color
and high specific gravity .
Rhombohedral cleavage

Occurrence

Frequently found as clay


ironstone

Siderite FeCO3
Physical Properties
Cleavage

{1011}

hardness

Specific
Specific gravity
gravity
Luster
Luster

3.0-3.2
3.0-3.2
Vitreous
Vitreous

Color
Color

White,
White, gray,
gray, yellow,
yellow,
brown
brown
Isostructural
Isostructural

Diagnostic
Diagnostic Features
Features

Cleavable
Cleavable varieties
varieties are
are
distinguished
from
distinguished from
dolomite
dolomite by
by higher
higher
specific
specific gravity
gravity and
and
absence
absence of
of abundant
abundant
calcium.
calcium.
Frequently
Frequently found
found as
as clay
clay
ironstone

Occurrence
Occurrence

Strontrianite SrCO3
Physical Properties
Cleavage

{1011}

hardness

Specific
Specific gravity
gravity
Luster
Luster

3.78
3.78
Vitreous
Vitreous

Color
Color

White,
White, gray,
gray, yellow,
yellow, green
green
Isostructural

Diagnostic Features

High specific gravity and


effervescence in HCL, can
be distinguished from
celestite by poorer
cleavage and
effervescence in acid

Occurrence

Frequently found as clay


ironstone

Smithsonite ZnCO3
Crystal
Structure:

Uses:
Minor ore of Zinc

Trigonal
Optical Properties:
Color: commonly apple green,
blue-green, lavender, purple,
yellow and white as well as tan,
brown, blue, orange
Hardness: 4 - 4.5
Luster: vitreous
Fracture: uneven
Streak: white
Specific gravity: approx. 4.4
Formerly called

calamine

Habit: Botryoidal, Reniform,


Occurence:
Earthy
often found with zinc deposits in limestone, associated with azurite,
malachite, limonite, sphalerite, calcite, cerussite, hemimorphite, aurichalcite,
anglesite, pyromorphite, hydrozincite, and galena

Rhodochrosite MnCO3
Crystal Structure:
Hexagonal
Optical Properties:

Color: red to pink, sometimes


almost white, yellow and
brown
Hardness: 3.5 - 4
Luster: vitreous
Streak: white
Specific gravity: approx. 3.5
Uses:
Minor ore of Manganese
Occurence:
occurs in metamorphic deposits, carbonatites,
sediments and as a primary mineral in low- to moderatetemperature hydrothermal veins.

Witherite - BaCO3
Crystal Structure:
Orthorhombic

Optical Properties:
Color: white, colorless, gray,
brown, yellowish or greenish
Hardness: 3-3.5
Luster: vitreous
Fracture: uneven
Streak: white
Specific gravity: 4.3+
Uses:
Minor ore of
barium

Occurence:
forms in low-temperature
hydrothermal environments

Malachite Cu2(OH)2CO3
Crystal Structure:

Monoclinic

Optical Properties:
Color: banded light and dark green
Hardness: 3.5 4
Luster: dull in massive forms and silky
as crystals
Fracture: conchoidal to splintery
Streak: green
Uses:
Used extensively as an ornamental and
gem mineral.

Occurence:
occurs when carbonated water interacts
with copper minerals, or when a solution of
copper interacts with limestone. It is a
secondary mineral of copper, which means
it's formed when copper minerals are
altered by other chemicals.