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Early Greece

Chapter 4: 1-2

Essential Questions:
1. Identify the major city-
states in Greece and their
contributions to Western
2. Compare and Contrast the
results of the Persian and
Peloponnesian Wars with
regard to Athens.
 Cities ●
– Athens
– Sparta
– Byzantium
– Thebes
– Delphi
– Troy
– Mycenae
– Knossos
 Bodies of Water
– Aegean Sea
– Black Sea
– Mediterrane
an Sea
Battle Locations *

Ionia – Red
Macedonia –
Greece –
Crete – Pink
Asia Minor -
Seas provided a link for
Geography of

to the outside world
through trade

Early Greece  Mountains isolated

Greeks into communities
with their own way of
 This made it difficult for
Greece to become a
unified empire.
– Greeks had city-states
called the polis with an
acropolis or high city on a
hilltop with temples (often
surrounded by a wall or fortified).
– These small communities
encouraged participation in
political affairs and often
resulted in wars.
Civilization  Named for King
Minos of Crete, the
(1750BC-1500BC) civilization was
based on trade with
Egypt and
Mesopotamia not
 Had a royal palace at
– Evidence of
matriarchal society
and athletic contests
 1400BC civilizations
disappears: natural
disasters and
invaders possible.
How was the Minoan Civilization
different from other civilizations
that we have discussed? Think
about government, economy,
architecture, art, writing, religion,
society, and geography.
Time Line of Early
Civilization in Greece
Mycenaean Life and
Culture (1400BC-
 Indo-European invaders
created the first Greek
 Sea traders with City-
states ruled by warrior
 Mycenaean states
fought one another,
and major earthquakes
caused widespread
 In the Twelfth century
BC, Greek speaking
invaders moved into
Greece from north.
Trojan War
 Trojan War 1250
– Trade conflict
between Mycenae
and Troy over a
strait, narrow
water passage,  Legend:
that connects – Trojan prince Paris
Mediterranean kidnapped Helen,
and Black Seas. Greek queen. Fought
for 10 yrs and ended
with the Greeks
sneaking into the city
in a horse.
– Heinrich Schliemann
proved that there
was a war.
Age of Homer
 After the collapse of Mycenaean
civilization, Greece entered into
a difficult period in which the
population declined and food
production dropped.
– Historians call this period the Dark
Age, because few records of what
happened exist.
 Oral Record of history
– Homer 750BC= blind poet told
stories of heroes.
 Epics: Iliad , about the Trojan War, and
Odyssey, about Odysseus’ return home
form the war.
 both were stories about what
happened in Greece, their values of
honor, courage, and eloquence, and
 They gave Greece an ideal past with a
cast of heroes to serve as a model for
future generations.
New Types of
 Monarchy:
– a government in which a
king or queen has
complete control
 Aristocracy:
– Government controlled by
a landowning elite
 Oligarchy:
– Government in which
power lies in the hands of
a few such as the
business class.
 Democracy:
– Type of government that
develops in Athens in
which the people
(citizens) hold ruling
Athens and
 By 750 BC, the city-
state, became the
central focus of
Greek Life
 Two of the most
important city-states
in Greece are Athens
and Sparta.
Sparta and Athens
Sparta Both Athens

Government Oligarchy / Monarchy Monarchies Monarchy ->

with Ephors Aristocracy -> Tyrany
Military State -> Democracy

Education Physical Education Military, Gods and Girls little to none,

and the Art of War Gods, Language boys learned many
Start at 7 subjects in school
Economy Looked down on trade Trade was important
and wealth, took and led to wealth and
spoils of war power
Role of Produce healthy sons, Subordinate to men No share in public
Women health and exercise life, managed
important, inherit household and raised
property, obedience children

Treatment of Brutal and harsh Believed Greeks were Debt slavery was
Slaves punishments, superior and owned common but outlawed
prisoners of war slaves by Solon
vs. Persia
A map of the Persian Wars, 490-479 B.C. Greek cities on the Aegean coast
attempted to free themselves from Persian control by calling on the
peninsula Greeks for help. The result was a war in which the Greeks defeated
the Persians in two different Persian invasions. In 490 B.C. under King Darius I
the first expeditionary force (black line) sailed from Melitus and landed at
Marathon (1) where a small Greek force drove them back. Ten years later,
Xerxes led an enormous Persian army by land (white line) while his fleet
(blue line) followed along the coast. A Greek army under the Spartan general
Leonidas held a narrow mountain pass at Thermopylae (2) for days, but a
Greek traitor showed Xerxes a route around the pass and from the rear he
attacked the Spartans, who fought to the last man. The Persians then
destroyed Athens as their fleet entered the Bay of Salamis (3), but
Themistocles, the Athenian leader of the combined Greek fleet, drew the
Persian ships into a trap and annihilated them in a historic battle. Then in 479
Persian Wars: Largest empire
in the world vs. small city-
states of Greece
 Greek settlers in Asia 2. Thermopylae: 480 BC
Minor start a revolt – King Leondias and a small
Spartan force held the
– Persians decide to attack Persian Immortals led by
city-states Xerxes I off at a pass in
– Sparta and Athens push the between two mountains
Persians back through a – The Persians overtake
series of battles them, however it bought
the other city-states time to
1. Marathon: 490BC build larger armies
– Greeks, out numbered 2-1 2. 470s BC
defeat the Persians. – Salamis: Athenian navy
 Pheidippides ran 26.2 miles destroys Persian navy and
to proclaim the victory. claims victory for the war.
 Themistocles urged Athens – Plataea: A few months
to build a navy to protect later they formed the
their coasts. largest Greek army up to
that time and defeated the
Persian Army.
Age of Pericles
 Following the Persian
Wars, Athens dominated
the Greece and was at
the height of its power.
– Delian League: alliance
between Greek city-states
formed as a result of the
Persian Wars to protect
against future attacks
 Pericles established a
direct democracy in
 Sparta and Athens,
former allies against
Persian turn on each
other in the
Peloponnesian War
A map of the Peloponnesian War,
431-404 B.C. From their
beginnings, the Greek city-states
had tenaciously protected their
individual independence, and only
with reluctance had they formed
an alliance against the Persians.
After their defeat of the Persians, Athens and others broke with
tradition and formed a permanent union, the Delian League (green
areas), to prevent further Persian attacks. In a few years, the more
powerful Athens turned the league into its own empire, which
changed forever the ancient Greek political ideal. Sparta and its allies
(yellow areas) looked on such a coalition as a threat to their safety
which, according to the Athenian historian Thucydides, "drove them
to war." The result was a drain on the resources of both sides, and
the beginning of a series of destructive, internecine wars. The
weakened cities easily succumbed to King Philip of Macedon when he
Sparta allies with

Persia and

crushes Athens
Spartan victory
hurts democracy
and ends
– Sparta was
defeated by
 Results:
– Weakened Greek
invaded by the
– Philip of Macedon
and his son
Alexander the Great
come to power.
The Culture of
Classical Greece
Essential Question: How do the achievements of
Classical Greece influence Western art and
thought today?

Chapter 4 Section 4
Pages 127-133
 Affected every area of life
 It was necessary to the
well-being of the state
 There were twelve chief
gods and goddesses that
were thought to live on
Mt. Olympus
 Define rituals:
 Who was worshiped at
Olympia? Delphi?
Gods and Goddesses
Classical Greece
Art and Architecture History
Based on reason and harmony Herodotus, the father of history, wrote about the
Often found on pottery Persian Wars from the point of view of the
Lifelike statues of nude males were common
Sculptors achieved a standard of ideal beauty
Thucydides, non-biased, wrote about the
Temples are best examples of architecture
Peloponnesian Wars and tried to show both sides
Parthenon the most famous temple built to of the conflict.
honor Athena at the acropolis in Athens
He emphasized the accuracy of facts not the
gods and goddesses.

Philosophy Drama Greeks created drama as it is known

Pythagoras: Mathematician that calculated the today in Western culture including:
sides of a right triangle. Tragedy = plays about human suffering
Sophocles: Oedipus Rex
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle are perhaps the
Story about a man doomed to kill his
most famous Greek philosophers
father and marry his mother
Socrates: Socratic method of examining things
through critical questioning, “The unexamined life is not
Comedy = plays that mocked society and
worth living.” government
Plato: Wrote the Republic
Aristotle: Alexander’s teacher, thought government
needed strong and virtuous leader
Art and
Alexander and the
Hellenistic World
Essential Questions:
1. Who was Alexander the Great and
what was his greatest achievement?
2. Compare and contrast the similarities
and differences between art and
drama of the Classical and Hellenistic
 Following the Peloponnesian
War, the city-states of Greece
were weakened.
 For 66 yrs. Sparta, Athens,
and Thebes struggled to
dominate Greek affairs and
Philip lost his right eye Macedonia was ignored.
in battle.  In 359 BC Philip II of
Macedonia came to the throne
and by 338 BC he had gained
control of all of Greece.
 Philip decided to invade Asia
in a war with Persia
– He insisted that the Greek states
for a league and cooperate with
him in a war against Persia
 BUT died before he could
complete this task.
Alexander the Great
 What do you know
about Alexander?
 What made him
such a great
 What was his
personality like?
 How did his
personality and
strategic abilities
make Alexander a
great leader?
Alexander the Great
 Alexander was the son of
Philip II.
 He established an empire
that extended from Greece
to Egypt and India.
 Alexander’s most lasting
achievement was the spread
of Greek culture.
 Macedonia, Syria,
Pergamum, and Egypt were
the four kingdoms that
emerged following
Alexander’s death.
Hellenistic Era
 Alexander’s conquests created the Hellenistic Era, an age
that saw the expansion of the Greek language and ideas
to the non-Greek World
– Hellenistic means “to imitate Greeks”
 Alexandria was the center of the Hellenistic world.

The lighthouse
at Alexandria
was one of the
wonders of the
It had more
than 500,000
Hellenistic Philosophy
 Epicureans believed that the way to
achieve happiness was the pursuit of
pleasure, the only true good.
– To achieve pleasure, people had to free
themselves from emotional turmoil and
 Stoics believed that happiness cold only be
found when people gained inner peace by
living in harmony with the will of God.
– Stoics did not believe in the need to
separate themselves from the world and
Art and Drama
 Compare and contrast achievements in art and drama
between the Classical and Hellenistic eras.

Most Drawings on Baths and Theatres

pottery Achieved emotional and more
Statues, Temples, realistic art
Never achieved realism and drawings
but was idealistic
Socrates= SM, Plato= Athens the center of Epicureanism= happiness
Republic and reality, philosophy through pleasure, Stoicism=
Aristotle=school, politics, happiness through harmony
philosopher king is best with the will of God