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Fe Math Review

Fe

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- Chapter 6

You are on page 1of 44

Associate Professor

Undergraduate Program Director

Department of Bioengineering

Topics covered

Analytic geometry

Distance, area and volume

Trigonometric identities

Complex numbers

Matrix arithmetic and

determinants

Vector arithmetic and

applications

Progressions and series

Numerical methods for finding

solutions of nonlinear equations

Integral calculus

Integrals and applications

Numerical methods

Differential equations

Solution and applications

Laplace transforms

Difference equations and Z

transforms

Numerical methods

Differential calculus

Derivatives and applications

Limits and LHopitals rule

Algebra

Rules of probability

Combinations and permutations

Statistical measures (mean,

S.D., etc.)

Probability density and

distribution functions

Confidence intervals

Hypothesis testing

Linear regression

Know what types of problems you can use it for

Know how to use it to solve problems

Refer to it frequently

FE exam is multiple choice with single correct answer

Plug answers into problem when it is convenient to do so

Try to work backwards to confirm your solution as often as possible

Same number of points per problem

Calculator tips

Check the NCEES website to confirm your model is allowed

Avoid using it to save time!

Many answers do not require a calculator (fractions vs. decimals)

Equations of lines

the equation for a line whose

x-intercept is 4 and yintercept is -6?

(A) 2x 3y 18 = 0

(B) 2x + 3y + 18 = 0

(C) 3x 2y 12 = 0

(D) 3x + 2y + 12 = 0

Equations of lines

the equation for a line whose

x-intercept is 4 and yintercept is -6?

(A) 2x 3y 18 = 0

(B) 2x + 3y + 18 = 0

(C) 3x 2y 12 = 0

(D) 3x + 2y + 12 = 0

Handbook pg 3: y = mx + b

Given (x1, y1) = (4, 0)

Given (x2, y2) = (0, -6)

Answer is (C)

y mx b

y y1 6 0 3

m 2

x 2 x1

04

2

b 6

3

y x 6

2

2 y 3 x 12

0 3 x 2 y 12

Equations of lines

the equation for a line whose

x-intercept is 4 and yintercept is -6?

(A) 2x 3y 18 = 0

(B) 2x + 3y + 18 = 0

(C) 3x 2y 12 = 0

(D) 3x + 2y + 12 = 0

Work backwards

Substitute (x1, y1) = (4, 0)

Substitute (x2, y2) = (0, -6)

See what works

Answer is (C)

(A) 2 4 3 0 18 10 0

(B) 2 4 3 0 18 26 0

(C) 3 4 2 0 12 0

(D) 3 4 2 0 12 24 0

(C) 3 0 2 (6) 12 0

Trigonometry

-8/5. What is cos 2?

(A) 7/32

(B) 1/4

(C) 3/8

(D) 5/8

Trigonometry

-8/5. What is cos 2?

(A) 7/32

(B) 1/4

(C) 3/8

(D) 5/8

on handbook page 5

Answer is (A)

First find = csc-1(-8/5)

Then find cos 2

1

sin

cos 2 1 2 sin 2

1

cos 2 1 2

csc 2

52

25

cos 2 1 2 2 1 2

8

64

25 7

cos 2 1

32 32

csc

Polar coordinates

the polar equation r2 = 1

tan2 ?

(A) x2 + x4y2 + y2 = 0

(B) x2 + x2y2 - y2 - y4 = 0

(C) x4 + y2 = 0

(D) x4 x2 + x2y2 + y2 = 0

Polar coordinates

the polar equation r2 = 1

tan2 ?

(A) x2 + x4y2 + y2 = 0

(B) x2 + x2y2 - y2 - y4 = 0

(C) x4 + y2 = 0

(D) x4 x2 + x2y2 + y2 = 0

handbook page 5

Answer is (D)

r x 2 y2

y

tan 1 ( )

x

r 2 1 tan 2

y

( x 2 y 2 ) 2 1 tan 2 (tan 1 ( ))

x

y2

2

2

x y 1 2

x

x 4 x 2 y2 x 2 y2

x 4 x 2 x 2 y2 y2 0

Matrix identities

which of the following

statements is not necessarily

true?

(A) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C

(B) A(B + C) = AB + AC

(C) (B + C)A = AB + AC

(D) A + (B + C) = C + (A + B)

Matrix identities

which of the following

statements is not necessarily

true?

true from linear algebra

matrix identity in handbook

page 7

as being true

(A) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C

(B) A(B + C) = AB + AC

(C) (B + C)A = AB + AC

(D) A + (B + C) = C + (A + B)

page 7

Answer is (C)

Vector calculations

A = 6i + 8j + 10k

B = i + 2j + 3k

C = 3i + 4j + 5k, what is the

product A(B x C)?

(A) 0

(B) 64

(C) 80

(D) 216

Vector calculations

A = 6i + 8j + 10k

B = i + 2j + 3k

C = 3i + 4j + 5k, what is the

product A(B x C)?

(A) 0

(B) 64

(C) 80

(D) 216

Vector products on

handbook page 6

Answer is (A)

j k

B C 1 2 3

3 4 5

B C i(2 5 3 4) j(1 5 3 3) k (1 4 2 3)

B C 2i 4 j 2k

A (B C) (6i 8 j 10k ) (2i 4 j 2k )

A (B C) 6 (2) 8 4 10 (2) 0

Vector calculations

A = 6i + 8j + 10k

B = i + 2j + 3k

C = 3i + 4j + 5k, what is the

product A(B x C)?

(A) 0

(B) 64

(C) 80

(D) 216

Vector products on

handbook page 6

Answer is (A)

j k

B C 1 2 3

3 4 5

B C i(2 5 3 4) j(1 5 3 3) k (1 4 2 3)

B C 2i 4 j 2k

A (B C) (6i 8 j 10k ) (2i 4 j 2k )

A (B C) 6 (2) 8 4 10 (2) 0

product is only zero when two vectors A

and (B x C) are perpendicular. But this is

the case! A and C are parallel (A = 2C),

and (B x C) is perpendicular to C, hence

perpendicular to A!

Geometric progression

geometric progression are

3/10 and 243/160. What is

the first term of the

sequence?

(A) 1/10

(B) 1/5

(C) 3/5

(D) 3/2

Geometric progression

geometric progression are

3/10 and 243/160. What is

the first term of the

sequence?

(A) 1/10

(B) 1/5

(C) 3/5

(D) 3/2

Geometric progression on

handbook page 7

Answer is (B)

l n ar n 1

3

243

, l6

10

160

l 6 ar 5

243 / 160 81

r4

l 2 ar

3 / 10

16

l2

81 3

16 2

3 3

l2 a

2 10

1

l1 a

5

r4

Geometric progression

geometric progression are

3/10 and 243/160. What is

the first term of the

sequence?

(A) 1/10

(B) 1/5

(C) 3/5

(D) 3/2

Geometric progression on

handbook page 7

Answer is (B)

l n ar n 1

3

243

, l6

10

160

l 6 ar 5

243 / 160 81

r4

l 2 ar

3 / 10

16

l2

81 3

16 2

3 3

l2 a

2 10

1

l1 a

5

r4

with a = 1/5 and r = 3/2.

used to find the roots of the

equation f(x) = (x 2)2 1.

Find the 3rd approximation if

the 1st approximation of the

root is 9.33

(A) 1.0

(B) 2.0

(C) 3.0

(D) 4.0

used to find the roots of the

equation f(x) = (x 2)2 1.

Find the 3rd approximation if

the 1st approximation of the

root is 9.33

(A) 1.0

(B) 2.0

(C) 3.0

(D) 4.0

Newtons method on

handbook page 13

Answer is (D)

x n 1 x n

f (x n )

f ( x n )

f ( x ) ( x 2) 2 1

f ( x ) 2 ( x 2)

x1 9.33

(9.33 2) 2 1

x 2 9.33

2 (9.33 2)

52.73

x 2 9.33

5.73

14.66

(5.73 2) 2 1

x 3 5.73

2 (5.73 2)

12.91

x 3 5.73

4.0

7.46

Limits

4x as x 0?

(A) -

(B) -3/4

(C) 0

(D) 1/4

Limits

4x as x 0?

(A) -

(B) -3/4

(C) 0

(D) 1/4

page 8

Answer is (B)

1 e 3x 1 e 30 1 1 0

lim

?

x 0

4x

40

0

0

f (x) 0

f ' (x)

if lim

, try lim

x 0 g ( x )

x 0 g ' ( x )

0

1 e3x

3e 3 x

lim

lim

x 0

x 0

4x

4

3e 3 x 3 1

3

lim

x 0

4

4

4

Limits

4x as x 0?

(A) -

(B) -3/4

(C) 0

(D) 1/4

page 8

Answer is (B)

1 e 3x 1 e 30 1 1 0

lim

?

x 0

4x

40

0

0

f (x) 0

f ' (x)

if lim

, try lim

x 0 g ( x )

x 0 g ' ( x )

0

1 e3x

3e 3 x

lim

lim

x 0

x 0

4x

4

3e 3 x 3 1

3

lim

x 0

4

4

4

You should apply LHopitals rule

iteratively until you find limit of f(x) /

g(x) that does not equal 0 / 0.

You can also use your calculator to

confirm the answer, substitute a small

value of x = 0.01 or 0.001.

Application of derivatives

rolling down a hill is

increasing at a rate of 20

cm / min. How fast is its

volume increasing when the

diameter is 1 m?

(A) 0.034 m3 / min

(B) 0.52 m3 / min

(C) 0.63 m3 / min

(D) 0.84 m3 / min

Application of derivatives

rolling down a hill is

increasing at a rate of 20

cm / min. How fast is its

volume increasing when the

diameter is 1 m?

(B) 0.52 m3 / min

(C) 0.63 m3 / min

(D) 0.84 m3 / min

Derivatives on handbook

page 9; volume of sphere on

handbook page 10

Answer is (C)

4 3

r

3

dV dr

dr dt

dr

4r 2

dt

V(r )

dV

dt

dV

dt

dV

m

2

4 0.5m 0.2

dt

min

dV

m3

0.63

dt

min

Application of derivatives

rolling down a hill is

increasing at a rate of 20

cm / min. How fast is its

volume increasing when the

diameter is 1 m?

(B) 0.52 m3 / min

(C) 0.63 m3 / min

(D) 0.84 m3 / min

Derivatives on handbook

page 9; volume of sphere on

handbook page 10

Answer is (C)

4 3

r

3

dV dr

dr dt

dr

4r 2

dt

V(r )

dV

dt

dV

dt

dV

m

2

4 0.5m 0.2

dt

min

dV

m3

0.63

dt

min

Convert cm to m, convert diameter to

radius, and confirm final units are correct.

Evaluating integrals

integral of f(x) = cos2x sin x

(A) -2/3 sin3x + C

(B) -1/3 cos3x + C

(C) 1/3 sin3x + C

(D) 1/2 sin2x cos2x + C

Evaluating integrals

integral of f(x) = cos2x sin x

(A) -2/3 sin3x + C

(B) -1/3 cos3x + C

(C) 1/3 sin3x + C

(D) 1/2 sin2x cos2x + C

handbook page 9

Answer is (B)

u cos 2 x

du 2 cos x sin x dx

dv sin x dx

v cos x

u dv u v v du

cos x sin x dx cos x 2 cos

3 cos x sin x dx cos x

2

1

2

cos

x

sin

x

dx

cos 3 x

x sin x dx

Evaluating integrals

integral of f(x) = cos2x sin x

(A) -2/3 sin3x + C

(B) -1/3 cos3x + C

(C) 1/3 sin3x + C

(D) 1/2 sin2x cos2x + C

Alternative method is to

differentiate answers

Answer is (B)

d

2

( sin 3 x C) 2 sin 2 x cos x

dx 3

d

1

(B)

( cos 3 x C) cos 2 x sin x

dx 3

d 1 3

( C)

( sin x C) sin 2 x cos x

dx 3

d

1

( D)

( sin 2 x cos 2 x C) sin x cos 3 x sin 3 x cos x

dx 2

(A)

Applications of integrals

bounded by the curve f(x) =

sin x and the x-axis on the

interval [/2, 2]?

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 3

(D) 4

Applications of integrals

bounded by the curve f(x) =

sin x and the x-axis on the

interval [/2, 2]?

2

/2

(A) 1

(B) 2

(C) 3

(D) 4

because sin x is negative

over interval [, 2]

Answer is (C)

area

/2

sin x dx

/2

area cos x / 2 cos x 2

area (1) 0 1 (1) 3

Differential equations

to the differential equation

y 8y + 16y = 0?

(A) y = C1e4x

(B) y = (C1 + C2x)e4x

(C) y = C1e-4x + C1e4x

(D) y = C1e2x + C2e4x

Differential equations

to the differential equation

y 8y + 16y = 0?

(A) y = C1e4x

(B) y = (C1 + C2x)e4x

y 8 y 16 y 0

y 2 4 y 16 y 0

a 4, b 16

r 2 2 4r 16r 0

r 4 4 2 16 4

y (C1 C 2 x ) e 4 x

eqns on handbook page 12

Answer is (B)

Differential equations

to the differential equation

y 8y + 16y = 0?

(A) y = C1e4x

(B) y = (C1 + C2x)e4x

y 8 y 16 y 0

y 2 4 y 16 y 0

a 4, b 16

r 2 2 4r 16r 0

r 4 4 2 16 4

y (C1 C 2 x ) e 4 x

In this case, working backwards could

eqns on handbook page 12

give an incorrect answer because answer

Answer is (B)

(A) would also work. The answer in (B)

is the sum of two terms that would satisfy

the differential equation, one of these

terms is the same as answer (A).

Laplace transforms

of the equation f(t) + f(t) =

sin t where f(0) and f(0) = 0

(A) F(s) = / [(1 + s2)(s2 + 2)]

(B) F(s) = / [(1 + s2)(s2 - 2)]

(C) F(s) = / [(1 - s2)(s2 + 2)]

(D) F(s) = s / [(1 - s2)(s2 + 2)]

Laplace transforms

of the equation f(t) + f(t) =

sin t where f(0) and f(0) = 0

(A) F(s) = / [(1 + s2)(s2 + 2)]

(B) F(s) = / [(1 + s2)(s2 - 2)]

(C) F(s) = / [(1 - s2)(s2 + 2)]

(D) F(s) = s / [(1 - s2)(s2 + 2)]

Laplace transforms on

handbook page 174 (EECS

section)

Answer is (A)

f ( t ) s 2 F(s)

f ( t ) F(s)

sin t e 0 t sin t

s 2 2

2

(s 1) F(s) 2

s 2

1

F(s) 2

2

s 1 s 2

s 2 F(s) F(s)

s 2 2

Probability of an outcome

the probability he will hit a

bulls-eye with at least 1 of

his next 3 shots?

(A) 3/4

(B) 15/16

(C) 31/32

(D) 63/64

Probability of an outcome

the probability he will hit a

bulls-eye with at least 1 of

his next 3 shots?

(A) 3/4

(B) 15/16

(C) 31/32

(D) 63/64

Answer is (D)

Prob(H) = , Prob(M) =

three shots

MMH + HHM + ...)

one hit) = 1 Prob(no hits)

1 Prob(no hits) = 1

Prob(MMM)

Prob(MMM) = Prob(M)3 =

(1/4)3 = 1/64

Normal distribution

normally with a mean of 73

and a standard deviation of

11. What is the probability of

finding a score between 65

and 80?

(A) 0.4196

(B) 0.4837

(C) 0.5161

(D) 0.6455

Normal distribution

normally with a mean of 73 and

a standard deviation of 11.

What is the probability of finding

a score between 65 and 80?

(A) 0.4196

(B) 0.4837

(C) 0.5161

Z < 0.6)

(D) 0.6455

handbook page 20

Prob(65 < X < 80)

Prob(Z < 0.6) Prob(Z > 0.7)

Answer is (B)

0.2420 = 0.4837

Confidence intervals

interval for the mean exam

score if the mean is 73 and

the standard deviation is 11

from 25 scores?

(A) 73 4.54

(B) 73 0.91

(C) 73 4.31

(D) 73 0.86

Confidence intervals

interval for the mean exam

score if the mean is 73 and

the standard deviation is 11

from 25 scores?

(C) 73 4.31

(D) 73 0.86

Answer is (A)

Look up t/2,

= 1 0.95 = 0.05

/2 = 0.025

= 25 1 = 24 degrees of

freedom

t0.025, 24 = 2.064 on page 21

(B) 73 0.91

Confidence intervals on

handbook page 19

s

Formula is X t / 2

n

(A) 73 4.54

standard deviation unknown

73 (2.064) (11) / 25

Answer is 73 4.54

Hypothesis testing

mean lifetime. The first lot mean =

792 hours, S.D. = 35 hours, n = 25.

The second lot mean = 776 hours,

S.D. = 24 hours, n = 20. Determine

with 95% confidence whether light

bulbs from the first lot last longer

than those from the second lot.

Provide a statistic value.

Hypothesis testing

mean lifetime. The first lot mean =

792 hours, S.D. = 35 hours, n = 25.

The second lot mean = 776 hours,

S.D. = 24 hours, n = 20. Determine

with 95% confidence whether light

bulbs from the first lot last longer

than those from the second lot.

Provide a statistic value.

(B) No difference, z0 = 1.81

(C) No difference, t0 = 1.74

(D) First lot lasts longer, t0 = 1.96

Answer is (C)

deviation or variance unknown

Sp

30.63

25 20 2

792 776

t0

1.74

30.63 1 25 1 20

Look up t,

handbook page 198

= 1 0.95 = 0.05

= 25 + 20 2 = 43 d.o.f.

t0.05, 43 = 1.96 from page 21 ( > 29)

t0 < t0.05, 43

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