You are on page 1of 44

FE Mathematics Review

Dr. Scott Molitor


Associate Professor
Undergraduate Program Director
Department of Bioengineering

Topics covered

Analytic geometry

Equations of lines and curves


Distance, area and volume
Trigonometric identities

Complex numbers
Matrix arithmetic and

determinants
Vector arithmetic and
applications
Progressions and series
Numerical methods for finding
solutions of nonlinear equations

Integral calculus
Integrals and applications
Numerical methods

Differential equations
Solution and applications
Laplace transforms
Difference equations and Z

transforms
Numerical methods

Differential calculus
Derivatives and applications
Limits and LHopitals rule

Algebra

Probability and statistics


Rules of probability
Combinations and permutations
Statistical measures (mean,

S.D., etc.)
Probability density and
distribution functions
Confidence intervals
Hypothesis testing
Linear regression

Tips for taking exam

Use the reference handbook

Know what it contains


Know what types of problems you can use it for
Know how to use it to solve problems
Refer to it frequently

Work backwards when possible


FE exam is multiple choice with single correct answer
Plug answers into problem when it is convenient to do so
Try to work backwards to confirm your solution as often as possible

Progress from easiest to hardest problem


Same number of points per problem

Calculator tips
Check the NCEES website to confirm your model is allowed
Avoid using it to save time!
Many answers do not require a calculator (fractions vs. decimals)

Equations of lines

What is the general form of


the equation for a line whose
x-intercept is 4 and yintercept is -6?
(A) 2x 3y 18 = 0
(B) 2x + 3y + 18 = 0
(C) 3x 2y 12 = 0
(D) 3x + 2y + 12 = 0

Equations of lines

What is the general form of


the equation for a line whose
x-intercept is 4 and yintercept is -6?
(A) 2x 3y 18 = 0
(B) 2x + 3y + 18 = 0
(C) 3x 2y 12 = 0
(D) 3x + 2y + 12 = 0

Try using standard form


Handbook pg 3: y = mx + b
Given (x1, y1) = (4, 0)
Given (x2, y2) = (0, -6)

Answer is (C)

y mx b
y y1 6 0 3
m 2

x 2 x1
04
2
b 6
3
y x 6
2
2 y 3 x 12
0 3 x 2 y 12

Equations of lines

What is the general form of


the equation for a line whose
x-intercept is 4 and yintercept is -6?
(A) 2x 3y 18 = 0
(B) 2x + 3y + 18 = 0
(C) 3x 2y 12 = 0
(D) 3x + 2y + 12 = 0

Work backwards
Substitute (x1, y1) = (4, 0)
Substitute (x2, y2) = (0, -6)
See what works

Answer is (C)

(A) 2 4 3 0 18 10 0
(B) 2 4 3 0 18 26 0
(C) 3 4 2 0 12 0
(D) 3 4 2 0 12 24 0
(C) 3 0 2 (6) 12 0

Trigonometry

For some angle , csc =


-8/5. What is cos 2?
(A) 7/32
(B) 1/4
(C) 3/8
(D) 5/8

Trigonometry

For some angle , csc =


-8/5. What is cos 2?
(A) 7/32
(B) 1/4
(C) 3/8
(D) 5/8

Use trigonometric identities


on handbook page 5

Answer is (A)

Confirm with calculator


First find = csc-1(-8/5)
Then find cos 2

1
sin
cos 2 1 2 sin 2
1
cos 2 1 2
csc 2
52
25
cos 2 1 2 2 1 2
8
64
25 7
cos 2 1

32 32
csc

Polar coordinates

What is rectangular form of


the polar equation r2 = 1
tan2 ?
(A) x2 + x4y2 + y2 = 0
(B) x2 + x2y2 - y2 - y4 = 0
(C) x4 + y2 = 0
(D) x4 x2 + x2y2 + y2 = 0

Polar coordinates

What is rectangular form of


the polar equation r2 = 1
tan2 ?
(A) x2 + x4y2 + y2 = 0
(B) x2 + x2y2 - y2 - y4 = 0
(C) x4 + y2 = 0
(D) x4 x2 + x2y2 + y2 = 0

Polar coordinate identities on


handbook page 5

Answer is (D)

r x 2 y2
y
tan 1 ( )
x
r 2 1 tan 2
y
( x 2 y 2 ) 2 1 tan 2 (tan 1 ( ))
x
y2
2
2
x y 1 2
x
x 4 x 2 y2 x 2 y2
x 4 x 2 x 2 y2 y2 0

Matrix identities

For three matrices A, B and C,


which of the following
statements is not necessarily
true?
(A) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C
(B) A(B + C) = AB + AC
(C) (B + C)A = AB + AC
(D) A + (B + C) = C + (A + B)

Matrix identities

For three matrices A, B and C,


which of the following
statements is not necessarily
true?

Should know (A) and (D) are


true from linear algebra

Answer (B) appears as


matrix identity in handbook
page 7

Therefore can eliminate (C)


as being true

(A) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C
(B) A(B + C) = AB + AC
(C) (B + C)A = AB + AC
(D) A + (B + C) = C + (A + B)

Matrix identities on handbook


page 7

Answer is (C)

Vector calculations

For three vectors


A = 6i + 8j + 10k
B = i + 2j + 3k
C = 3i + 4j + 5k, what is the
product A(B x C)?
(A) 0
(B) 64
(C) 80
(D) 216

Vector calculations

For three vectors


A = 6i + 8j + 10k
B = i + 2j + 3k
C = 3i + 4j + 5k, what is the
product A(B x C)?
(A) 0
(B) 64
(C) 80
(D) 216

Vector products on
handbook page 6

Answer is (A)

j k

B C 1 2 3
3 4 5
B C i(2 5 3 4) j(1 5 3 3) k (1 4 2 3)
B C 2i 4 j 2k
A (B C) (6i 8 j 10k ) (2i 4 j 2k )
A (B C) 6 (2) 8 4 10 (2) 0

Vector calculations

For three vectors


A = 6i + 8j + 10k
B = i + 2j + 3k
C = 3i + 4j + 5k, what is the
product A(B x C)?
(A) 0
(B) 64
(C) 80
(D) 216

Vector products on
handbook page 6

Answer is (A)

j k

B C 1 2 3
3 4 5
B C i(2 5 3 4) j(1 5 3 3) k (1 4 2 3)
B C 2i 4 j 2k
A (B C) (6i 8 j 10k ) (2i 4 j 2k )
A (B C) 6 (2) 8 4 10 (2) 0

Aside: why is the answer zero? A dot


product is only zero when two vectors A
and (B x C) are perpendicular. But this is
the case! A and C are parallel (A = 2C),
and (B x C) is perpendicular to C, hence
perpendicular to A!

Geometric progression

The 2nd and 6th terms of a


geometric progression are
3/10 and 243/160. What is
the first term of the
sequence?
(A) 1/10
(B) 1/5
(C) 3/5
(D) 3/2

Geometric progression

The 2nd and 6th terms of a


geometric progression are
3/10 and 243/160. What is
the first term of the
sequence?
(A) 1/10
(B) 1/5
(C) 3/5
(D) 3/2

Geometric progression on
handbook page 7

Answer is (B)

l n ar n 1
3
243
, l6
10
160
l 6 ar 5
243 / 160 81

r4

l 2 ar
3 / 10
16

l2

81 3

16 2
3 3
l2 a
2 10
1
l1 a
5
r4

Geometric progression

The 2nd and 6th terms of a


geometric progression are
3/10 and 243/160. What is
the first term of the
sequence?
(A) 1/10
(B) 1/5
(C) 3/5
(D) 3/2

Geometric progression on
handbook page 7

Answer is (B)

l n ar n 1
3
243
, l6
10
160
l 6 ar 5
243 / 160 81

r4

l 2 ar
3 / 10
16

l2

81 3

16 2
3 3
l2 a
2 10
1
l1 a
5
r4

Confirm answer by calculating l2 and l6


with a = 1/5 and r = 3/2.

Roots of nonlinear equations

Newtons method is being


used to find the roots of the
equation f(x) = (x 2)2 1.
Find the 3rd approximation if
the 1st approximation of the
root is 9.33
(A) 1.0
(B) 2.0
(C) 3.0
(D) 4.0

Roots of nonlinear equations

Newtons method is being


used to find the roots of the
equation f(x) = (x 2)2 1.
Find the 3rd approximation if
the 1st approximation of the
root is 9.33
(A) 1.0
(B) 2.0
(C) 3.0
(D) 4.0

Newtons method on
handbook page 13

Answer is (D)

x n 1 x n

f (x n )
f ( x n )

f ( x ) ( x 2) 2 1
f ( x ) 2 ( x 2)
x1 9.33
(9.33 2) 2 1
x 2 9.33
2 (9.33 2)
52.73
x 2 9.33
5.73
14.66
(5.73 2) 2 1
x 3 5.73
2 (5.73 2)
12.91
x 3 5.73
4.0
7.46

Limits

What is the limit of (1 e3x) /


4x as x 0?
(A) -
(B) -3/4
(C) 0
(D) 1/4

Limits

What is the limit of (1 e3x) /


4x as x 0?
(A) -
(B) -3/4
(C) 0
(D) 1/4

LHopitals rule on handbook


page 8

Answer is (B)

1 e 3x 1 e 30 1 1 0
lim

?
x 0
4x
40
0
0
f (x) 0
f ' (x)
if lim
, try lim
x 0 g ( x )
x 0 g ' ( x )
0
1 e3x
3e 3 x
lim
lim
x 0
x 0
4x
4
3e 3 x 3 1
3
lim

x 0
4
4
4

Limits

What is the limit of (1 e3x) /


4x as x 0?
(A) -
(B) -3/4
(C) 0
(D) 1/4

LHopitals rule on handbook


page 8

Answer is (B)

1 e 3x 1 e 30 1 1 0
lim

?
x 0
4x
40
0
0
f (x) 0
f ' (x)
if lim
, try lim
x 0 g ( x )
x 0 g ' ( x )
0
1 e3x
3e 3 x
lim
lim
x 0
x 0
4x
4
3e 3 x 3 1
3
lim

x 0
4
4
4
You should apply LHopitals rule
iteratively until you find limit of f(x) /
g(x) that does not equal 0 / 0.
You can also use your calculator to
confirm the answer, substitute a small
value of x = 0.01 or 0.001.

Application of derivatives

The radius of a snowball


rolling down a hill is
increasing at a rate of 20
cm / min. How fast is its
volume increasing when the
diameter is 1 m?
(A) 0.034 m3 / min
(B) 0.52 m3 / min
(C) 0.63 m3 / min
(D) 0.84 m3 / min

Application of derivatives

The radius of a snowball


rolling down a hill is
increasing at a rate of 20
cm / min. How fast is its
volume increasing when the
diameter is 1 m?

(A) 0.034 m3 / min


(B) 0.52 m3 / min
(C) 0.63 m3 / min
(D) 0.84 m3 / min

Derivatives on handbook
page 9; volume of sphere on
handbook page 10

Answer is (C)

4 3
r
3
dV dr

dr dt
dr
4r 2
dt

V(r )

dV
dt
dV
dt
dV
m
2
4 0.5m 0.2
dt
min
dV
m3
0.63
dt
min

Application of derivatives

The radius of a snowball


rolling down a hill is
increasing at a rate of 20
cm / min. How fast is its
volume increasing when the
diameter is 1 m?

(A) 0.034 m3 / min


(B) 0.52 m3 / min
(C) 0.63 m3 / min
(D) 0.84 m3 / min

Derivatives on handbook
page 9; volume of sphere on
handbook page 10
Answer is (C)

4 3
r
3
dV dr

dr dt
dr
4r 2
dt

V(r )

dV
dt
dV
dt
dV
m
2
4 0.5m 0.2
dt
min
dV
m3
0.63
dt
min
Convert cm to m, convert diameter to
radius, and confirm final units are correct.

Evaluating integrals

Evaluate the indefinite


integral of f(x) = cos2x sin x
(A) -2/3 sin3x + C
(B) -1/3 cos3x + C
(C) 1/3 sin3x + C
(D) 1/2 sin2x cos2x + C

Evaluating integrals

Evaluate the indefinite


integral of f(x) = cos2x sin x
(A) -2/3 sin3x + C
(B) -1/3 cos3x + C
(C) 1/3 sin3x + C
(D) 1/2 sin2x cos2x + C

Apply integration by parts on


handbook page 9

Answer is (B)

u cos 2 x
du 2 cos x sin x dx
dv sin x dx
v cos x

u dv u v v du
cos x sin x dx cos x 2 cos
3 cos x sin x dx cos x
2

1
2
cos
x

sin
x

dx

cos 3 x

x sin x dx

Evaluating integrals

Evaluate the indefinite


integral of f(x) = cos2x sin x
(A) -2/3 sin3x + C
(B) -1/3 cos3x + C
(C) 1/3 sin3x + C
(D) 1/2 sin2x cos2x + C

Alternative method is to
differentiate answers

Answer is (B)

d
2
( sin 3 x C) 2 sin 2 x cos x
dx 3
d
1
(B)
( cos 3 x C) cos 2 x sin x
dx 3
d 1 3
( C)
( sin x C) sin 2 x cos x
dx 3
d
1
( D)
( sin 2 x cos 2 x C) sin x cos 3 x sin 3 x cos x
dx 2
(A)

Applications of integrals

What is the area of the curve


bounded by the curve f(x) =
sin x and the x-axis on the
interval [/2, 2]?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4

Applications of integrals

What is the area of the curve


bounded by the curve f(x) =
sin x and the x-axis on the
interval [/2, 2]?

2
/2

(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4

Need absolute value


because sin x is negative
over interval [, 2]
Answer is (C)

area

/2

sin x dx

/2

area sin x dx sin x dx


area cos x / 2 cos x 2
area (1) 0 1 (1) 3

Differential equations

What is the general solution


to the differential equation
y 8y + 16y = 0?
(A) y = C1e4x
(B) y = (C1 + C2x)e4x
(C) y = C1e-4x + C1e4x
(D) y = C1e2x + C2e4x

Differential equations

What is the general solution


to the differential equation
y 8y + 16y = 0?
(A) y = C1e4x
(B) y = (C1 + C2x)e4x

y 8 y 16 y 0
y 2 4 y 16 y 0
a 4, b 16
r 2 2 4r 16r 0

(C) y = C1e-4x + C1e4x

r 4 4 2 16 4

(D) y = C1e2x + C2e4x

y (C1 C 2 x ) e 4 x

Solving 2nd order differential


eqns on handbook page 12

Answer is (B)

Differential equations

What is the general solution


to the differential equation
y 8y + 16y = 0?
(A) y = C1e4x
(B) y = (C1 + C2x)e4x

y 8 y 16 y 0
y 2 4 y 16 y 0
a 4, b 16
r 2 2 4r 16r 0

(C) y = C1e-4x + C1e4x

r 4 4 2 16 4

(D) y = C1e2x + C2e4x

y (C1 C 2 x ) e 4 x

Solving 2nd order differential


In this case, working backwards could
eqns on handbook page 12
give an incorrect answer because answer
Answer is (B)
(A) would also work. The answer in (B)
is the sum of two terms that would satisfy
the differential equation, one of these
terms is the same as answer (A).

Laplace transforms

Find the Laplace transform


of the equation f(t) + f(t) =
sin t where f(0) and f(0) = 0
(A) F(s) = / [(1 + s2)(s2 + 2)]
(B) F(s) = / [(1 + s2)(s2 - 2)]
(C) F(s) = / [(1 - s2)(s2 + 2)]
(D) F(s) = s / [(1 - s2)(s2 + 2)]

Laplace transforms

Find the Laplace transform


of the equation f(t) + f(t) =
sin t where f(0) and f(0) = 0
(A) F(s) = / [(1 + s2)(s2 + 2)]
(B) F(s) = / [(1 + s2)(s2 - 2)]
(C) F(s) = / [(1 - s2)(s2 + 2)]
(D) F(s) = s / [(1 - s2)(s2 + 2)]

Laplace transforms on
handbook page 174 (EECS
section)

Answer is (A)

f ( t ) s 2 F(s) s f (0) s 2 f (0)


f ( t ) s 2 F(s)
f ( t ) F(s)

sin t e 0 t sin t

s 2 2

2
(s 1) F(s) 2
s 2
1

F(s) 2
2
s 1 s 2

s 2 F(s) F(s)

s 2 2

Probability of an outcome

A marksman can hit a bullseye 3 out of 4 shots. What is


the probability he will hit a
bulls-eye with at least 1 of
his next 3 shots?
(A) 3/4
(B) 15/16
(C) 31/32
(D) 63/64

Probability of an outcome

A marksman can hit a bullseye 3 out of 4 shots. What is


the probability he will hit a
bulls-eye with at least 1 of
his next 3 shots?

(A) 3/4
(B) 15/16
(C) 31/32
(D) 63/64

Answer is (D)

Let H = hit, M = miss,


Prob(H) = , Prob(M) =

Use combinations for next


three shots

Find Prob(HMM + MHM +


MMH + HHM + ...)

Easier method: Prob(at least


one hit) = 1 Prob(no hits)

1 Prob(no hits) = 1
Prob(MMM)

Prob(MMM) = Prob(M)3 =
(1/4)3 = 1/64

Answer is 1 1/64 = 63/64

Normal distribution

Exam scores are distributed


normally with a mean of 73
and a standard deviation of
11. What is the probability of
finding a score between 65
and 80?
(A) 0.4196
(B) 0.4837
(C) 0.5161
(D) 0.6455

Normal distribution

Exam scores are distributed


normally with a mean of 73 and
a standard deviation of 11.
What is the probability of finding
a score between 65 and 80?
(A) 0.4196
(B) 0.4837
(C) 0.5161

X is normally distributed with

mean 72 and S.D. 11

(65 72) / 11 = -0.73 -0.7

(80 72) / 11 = 0.64 0.6

Prob(65 < X < 80) Prob(-0.7 <


Z < 0.6)

Convert Prob(-0.7 < Z < 0.6)

(D) 0.6455

Standard normal tables on


handbook page 20

Let X = a random score, find


Prob(65 < X < 80)

Prob(Z < 0.6) Prob(Z < -0.7)


Prob(Z < 0.6) Prob(Z > 0.7)

Answer is (B)

F(0.6) R(0.7) from table

Prob(65 < X < 80) 0.7257


0.2420 = 0.4837

Confidence intervals

What is the 95% confidence


interval for the mean exam
score if the mean is 73 and
the standard deviation is 11
from 25 scores?
(A) 73 4.54
(B) 73 0.91
(C) 73 4.31
(D) 73 0.86

Confidence intervals

What is the 95% confidence


interval for the mean exam
score if the mean is 73 and
the standard deviation is 11
from 25 scores?

(C) 73 4.31
(D) 73 0.86

t values handbook page 21


Answer is (A)

Look up t/2,

= 1 0.95 = 0.05
/2 = 0.025
= 25 1 = 24 degrees of
freedom
t0.025, 24 = 2.064 on page 21

(B) 73 0.91

Confidence intervals on
handbook page 19

s
Formula is X t / 2
n

(A) 73 4.54

Use formula for population


standard deviation unknown

Calculate confidence interval


73 (2.064) (11) / 25

Answer is 73 4.54

Hypothesis testing

You sample two lots of light bulbs for


mean lifetime. The first lot mean =
792 hours, S.D. = 35 hours, n = 25.
The second lot mean = 776 hours,
S.D. = 24 hours, n = 20. Determine
with 95% confidence whether light
bulbs from the first lot last longer
than those from the second lot.
Provide a statistic value.

(A) First lot lasts longer, t0 = -1.96

(B) No difference, z0 = 1.81

(C) No difference, t0 = 1.74

(D) First lot lasts longer, t0 = 1.96

Hypothesis testing

You sample two lots of light bulbs for


mean lifetime. The first lot mean =
792 hours, S.D. = 35 hours, n = 25.
The second lot mean = 776 hours,
S.D. = 24 hours, n = 20. Determine
with 95% confidence whether light
bulbs from the first lot last longer
than those from the second lot.
Provide a statistic value.

(A) First lot lasts longer, z0 = -1.96


(B) No difference, z0 = 1.81
(C) No difference, t0 = 1.74
(D) First lot lasts longer, t0 = 1.96

t values handbook page 21

Answer is (C)

H0: 1 - 2 = 0 vs. H1: 1 - 2 > 0

Use formula for population standard


deviation or variance unknown

(25 1) 352 (20 1) 24 2


Sp
30.63
25 20 2
792 776
t0
1.74
30.63 1 25 1 20

Look up t,

Hypothesis testing in IE section of


handbook page 198

Test H0: 1 = 2 vs. H1: 1 > 2

= 1 0.95 = 0.05
= 25 + 20 2 = 43 d.o.f.
t0.05, 43 = 1.96 from page 21 ( > 29)

Accept null hypothesis since statistic


t0 < t0.05, 43

Bulbs from first lot do not last longer