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# FE Mathematics Review

## Dr. Scott Molitor

Associate Professor
Department of Bioengineering

Topics covered

Analytic geometry

## Equations of lines and curves

Distance, area and volume
Trigonometric identities

Complex numbers
Matrix arithmetic and

determinants
Vector arithmetic and
applications
Progressions and series
Numerical methods for finding
solutions of nonlinear equations

Integral calculus
Integrals and applications
Numerical methods

Differential equations
Solution and applications
Laplace transforms
Difference equations and Z

transforms
Numerical methods

Differential calculus
Derivatives and applications
Limits and LHopitals rule

Algebra

## Probability and statistics

Rules of probability
Combinations and permutations
Statistical measures (mean,

S.D., etc.)
Probability density and
distribution functions
Confidence intervals
Hypothesis testing
Linear regression

## Know what it contains

Know what types of problems you can use it for
Know how to use it to solve problems
Refer to it frequently

## Work backwards when possible

FE exam is multiple choice with single correct answer
Plug answers into problem when it is convenient to do so
Try to work backwards to confirm your solution as often as possible

## Progress from easiest to hardest problem

Same number of points per problem

Calculator tips
Check the NCEES website to confirm your model is allowed
Avoid using it to save time!
Many answers do not require a calculator (fractions vs. decimals)

Equations of lines

## What is the general form of

the equation for a line whose
x-intercept is 4 and yintercept is -6?
(A) 2x 3y 18 = 0
(B) 2x + 3y + 18 = 0
(C) 3x 2y 12 = 0
(D) 3x + 2y + 12 = 0

Equations of lines

## What is the general form of

the equation for a line whose
x-intercept is 4 and yintercept is -6?
(A) 2x 3y 18 = 0
(B) 2x + 3y + 18 = 0
(C) 3x 2y 12 = 0
(D) 3x + 2y + 12 = 0

## Try using standard form

Handbook pg 3: y = mx + b
Given (x1, y1) = (4, 0)
Given (x2, y2) = (0, -6)

y mx b
y y1 6 0 3
m 2

x 2 x1
04
2
b 6
3
y x 6
2
2 y 3 x 12
0 3 x 2 y 12

Equations of lines

## What is the general form of

the equation for a line whose
x-intercept is 4 and yintercept is -6?
(A) 2x 3y 18 = 0
(B) 2x + 3y + 18 = 0
(C) 3x 2y 12 = 0
(D) 3x + 2y + 12 = 0

Work backwards
Substitute (x1, y1) = (4, 0)
Substitute (x2, y2) = (0, -6)
See what works

(A) 2 4 3 0 18 10 0
(B) 2 4 3 0 18 26 0
(C) 3 4 2 0 12 0
(D) 3 4 2 0 12 24 0
(C) 3 0 2 (6) 12 0

Trigonometry

## For some angle , csc =

-8/5. What is cos 2?
(A) 7/32
(B) 1/4
(C) 3/8
(D) 5/8

Trigonometry

## For some angle , csc =

-8/5. What is cos 2?
(A) 7/32
(B) 1/4
(C) 3/8
(D) 5/8

## Use trigonometric identities

on handbook page 5

## Confirm with calculator

First find = csc-1(-8/5)
Then find cos 2

1
sin
cos 2 1 2 sin 2
1
cos 2 1 2
csc 2
52
25
cos 2 1 2 2 1 2
8
64
25 7
cos 2 1

32 32
csc

Polar coordinates

## What is rectangular form of

the polar equation r2 = 1
tan2 ?
(A) x2 + x4y2 + y2 = 0
(B) x2 + x2y2 - y2 - y4 = 0
(C) x4 + y2 = 0
(D) x4 x2 + x2y2 + y2 = 0

Polar coordinates

## What is rectangular form of

the polar equation r2 = 1
tan2 ?
(A) x2 + x4y2 + y2 = 0
(B) x2 + x2y2 - y2 - y4 = 0
(C) x4 + y2 = 0
(D) x4 x2 + x2y2 + y2 = 0

## Polar coordinate identities on

handbook page 5

r x 2 y2
y
tan 1 ( )
x
r 2 1 tan 2
y
( x 2 y 2 ) 2 1 tan 2 (tan 1 ( ))
x
y2
2
2
x y 1 2
x
x 4 x 2 y2 x 2 y2
x 4 x 2 x 2 y2 y2 0

Matrix identities

## For three matrices A, B and C,

which of the following
statements is not necessarily
true?
(A) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C
(B) A(B + C) = AB + AC
(C) (B + C)A = AB + AC
(D) A + (B + C) = C + (A + B)

Matrix identities

## For three matrices A, B and C,

which of the following
statements is not necessarily
true?

## Should know (A) and (D) are

true from linear algebra

matrix identity in handbook
page 7

## Therefore can eliminate (C)

as being true

(A) A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C
(B) A(B + C) = AB + AC
(C) (B + C)A = AB + AC
(D) A + (B + C) = C + (A + B)

## Matrix identities on handbook

page 7

Vector calculations

## For three vectors

A = 6i + 8j + 10k
B = i + 2j + 3k
C = 3i + 4j + 5k, what is the
product A(B x C)?
(A) 0
(B) 64
(C) 80
(D) 216

Vector calculations

## For three vectors

A = 6i + 8j + 10k
B = i + 2j + 3k
C = 3i + 4j + 5k, what is the
product A(B x C)?
(A) 0
(B) 64
(C) 80
(D) 216

Vector products on
handbook page 6

j k

B C 1 2 3
3 4 5
B C i(2 5 3 4) j(1 5 3 3) k (1 4 2 3)
B C 2i 4 j 2k
A (B C) (6i 8 j 10k ) (2i 4 j 2k )
A (B C) 6 (2) 8 4 10 (2) 0

Vector calculations

## For three vectors

A = 6i + 8j + 10k
B = i + 2j + 3k
C = 3i + 4j + 5k, what is the
product A(B x C)?
(A) 0
(B) 64
(C) 80
(D) 216

Vector products on
handbook page 6

j k

B C 1 2 3
3 4 5
B C i(2 5 3 4) j(1 5 3 3) k (1 4 2 3)
B C 2i 4 j 2k
A (B C) (6i 8 j 10k ) (2i 4 j 2k )
A (B C) 6 (2) 8 4 10 (2) 0

## Aside: why is the answer zero? A dot

product is only zero when two vectors A
and (B x C) are perpendicular. But this is
the case! A and C are parallel (A = 2C),
and (B x C) is perpendicular to C, hence
perpendicular to A!

Geometric progression

## The 2nd and 6th terms of a

geometric progression are
3/10 and 243/160. What is
the first term of the
sequence?
(A) 1/10
(B) 1/5
(C) 3/5
(D) 3/2

Geometric progression

## The 2nd and 6th terms of a

geometric progression are
3/10 and 243/160. What is
the first term of the
sequence?
(A) 1/10
(B) 1/5
(C) 3/5
(D) 3/2

Geometric progression on
handbook page 7

l n ar n 1
3
243
, l6
10
160
l 6 ar 5
243 / 160 81

r4

l 2 ar
3 / 10
16

l2

81 3

16 2
3 3
l2 a
2 10
1
l1 a
5
r4

Geometric progression

## The 2nd and 6th terms of a

geometric progression are
3/10 and 243/160. What is
the first term of the
sequence?
(A) 1/10
(B) 1/5
(C) 3/5
(D) 3/2

Geometric progression on
handbook page 7

l n ar n 1
3
243
, l6
10
160
l 6 ar 5
243 / 160 81

r4

l 2 ar
3 / 10
16

l2

81 3

16 2
3 3
l2 a
2 10
1
l1 a
5
r4

## Confirm answer by calculating l2 and l6

with a = 1/5 and r = 3/2.

## Newtons method is being

used to find the roots of the
equation f(x) = (x 2)2 1.
Find the 3rd approximation if
the 1st approximation of the
root is 9.33
(A) 1.0
(B) 2.0
(C) 3.0
(D) 4.0

## Newtons method is being

used to find the roots of the
equation f(x) = (x 2)2 1.
Find the 3rd approximation if
the 1st approximation of the
root is 9.33
(A) 1.0
(B) 2.0
(C) 3.0
(D) 4.0

Newtons method on
handbook page 13

x n 1 x n

f (x n )
f ( x n )

f ( x ) ( x 2) 2 1
f ( x ) 2 ( x 2)
x1 9.33
(9.33 2) 2 1
x 2 9.33
2 (9.33 2)
52.73
x 2 9.33
5.73
14.66
(5.73 2) 2 1
x 3 5.73
2 (5.73 2)
12.91
x 3 5.73
4.0
7.46

Limits

4x as x 0?
(A) -
(B) -3/4
(C) 0
(D) 1/4

Limits

4x as x 0?
(A) -
(B) -3/4
(C) 0
(D) 1/4

## LHopitals rule on handbook

page 8

1 e 3x 1 e 30 1 1 0
lim

?
x 0
4x
40
0
0
f (x) 0
f ' (x)
if lim
, try lim
x 0 g ( x )
x 0 g ' ( x )
0
1 e3x
3e 3 x
lim
lim
x 0
x 0
4x
4
3e 3 x 3 1
3
lim

x 0
4
4
4

Limits

4x as x 0?
(A) -
(B) -3/4
(C) 0
(D) 1/4

## LHopitals rule on handbook

page 8

1 e 3x 1 e 30 1 1 0
lim

?
x 0
4x
40
0
0
f (x) 0
f ' (x)
if lim
, try lim
x 0 g ( x )
x 0 g ' ( x )
0
1 e3x
3e 3 x
lim
lim
x 0
x 0
4x
4
3e 3 x 3 1
3
lim

x 0
4
4
4
You should apply LHopitals rule
iteratively until you find limit of f(x) /
g(x) that does not equal 0 / 0.
You can also use your calculator to
confirm the answer, substitute a small
value of x = 0.01 or 0.001.

Application of derivatives

## The radius of a snowball

rolling down a hill is
increasing at a rate of 20
cm / min. How fast is its
volume increasing when the
diameter is 1 m?
(A) 0.034 m3 / min
(B) 0.52 m3 / min
(C) 0.63 m3 / min
(D) 0.84 m3 / min

Application of derivatives

## The radius of a snowball

rolling down a hill is
increasing at a rate of 20
cm / min. How fast is its
volume increasing when the
diameter is 1 m?

## (A) 0.034 m3 / min

(B) 0.52 m3 / min
(C) 0.63 m3 / min
(D) 0.84 m3 / min

Derivatives on handbook
page 9; volume of sphere on
handbook page 10

4 3
r
3
dV dr

dr dt
dr
4r 2
dt

V(r )

dV
dt
dV
dt
dV
m
2
4 0.5m 0.2
dt
min
dV
m3
0.63
dt
min

Application of derivatives

## The radius of a snowball

rolling down a hill is
increasing at a rate of 20
cm / min. How fast is its
volume increasing when the
diameter is 1 m?

## (A) 0.034 m3 / min

(B) 0.52 m3 / min
(C) 0.63 m3 / min
(D) 0.84 m3 / min

Derivatives on handbook
page 9; volume of sphere on
handbook page 10

4 3
r
3
dV dr

dr dt
dr
4r 2
dt

V(r )

dV
dt
dV
dt
dV
m
2
4 0.5m 0.2
dt
min
dV
m3
0.63
dt
min
Convert cm to m, convert diameter to
radius, and confirm final units are correct.

Evaluating integrals

## Evaluate the indefinite

integral of f(x) = cos2x sin x
(A) -2/3 sin3x + C
(B) -1/3 cos3x + C
(C) 1/3 sin3x + C
(D) 1/2 sin2x cos2x + C

Evaluating integrals

## Evaluate the indefinite

integral of f(x) = cos2x sin x
(A) -2/3 sin3x + C
(B) -1/3 cos3x + C
(C) 1/3 sin3x + C
(D) 1/2 sin2x cos2x + C

## Apply integration by parts on

handbook page 9

u cos 2 x
du 2 cos x sin x dx
dv sin x dx
v cos x

u dv u v v du
cos x sin x dx cos x 2 cos
3 cos x sin x dx cos x
2

1
2
cos
x

sin
x

dx

cos 3 x

x sin x dx

Evaluating integrals

## Evaluate the indefinite

integral of f(x) = cos2x sin x
(A) -2/3 sin3x + C
(B) -1/3 cos3x + C
(C) 1/3 sin3x + C
(D) 1/2 sin2x cos2x + C

Alternative method is to

d
2
( sin 3 x C) 2 sin 2 x cos x
dx 3
d
1
(B)
( cos 3 x C) cos 2 x sin x
dx 3
d 1 3
( C)
( sin x C) sin 2 x cos x
dx 3
d
1
( D)
( sin 2 x cos 2 x C) sin x cos 3 x sin 3 x cos x
dx 2
(A)

Applications of integrals

## What is the area of the curve

bounded by the curve f(x) =
sin x and the x-axis on the
interval [/2, 2]?
(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4

Applications of integrals

## What is the area of the curve

bounded by the curve f(x) =
sin x and the x-axis on the
interval [/2, 2]?

2
/2

(A) 1
(B) 2
(C) 3
(D) 4

## Need absolute value

because sin x is negative
over interval [, 2]

area

/2

sin x dx

/2

## area sin x dx sin x dx

area cos x / 2 cos x 2
area (1) 0 1 (1) 3

Differential equations

## What is the general solution

to the differential equation
y 8y + 16y = 0?
(A) y = C1e4x
(B) y = (C1 + C2x)e4x
(C) y = C1e-4x + C1e4x
(D) y = C1e2x + C2e4x

Differential equations

## What is the general solution

to the differential equation
y 8y + 16y = 0?
(A) y = C1e4x
(B) y = (C1 + C2x)e4x

y 8 y 16 y 0
y 2 4 y 16 y 0
a 4, b 16
r 2 2 4r 16r 0

r 4 4 2 16 4

## (D) y = C1e2x + C2e4x

y (C1 C 2 x ) e 4 x

## Solving 2nd order differential

eqns on handbook page 12

Differential equations

## What is the general solution

to the differential equation
y 8y + 16y = 0?
(A) y = C1e4x
(B) y = (C1 + C2x)e4x

y 8 y 16 y 0
y 2 4 y 16 y 0
a 4, b 16
r 2 2 4r 16r 0

r 4 4 2 16 4

## (D) y = C1e2x + C2e4x

y (C1 C 2 x ) e 4 x

## Solving 2nd order differential

In this case, working backwards could
eqns on handbook page 12
(A) would also work. The answer in (B)
is the sum of two terms that would satisfy
the differential equation, one of these
terms is the same as answer (A).

Laplace transforms

## Find the Laplace transform

of the equation f(t) + f(t) =
sin t where f(0) and f(0) = 0
(A) F(s) = / [(1 + s2)(s2 + 2)]
(B) F(s) = / [(1 + s2)(s2 - 2)]
(C) F(s) = / [(1 - s2)(s2 + 2)]
(D) F(s) = s / [(1 - s2)(s2 + 2)]

Laplace transforms

## Find the Laplace transform

of the equation f(t) + f(t) =
sin t where f(0) and f(0) = 0
(A) F(s) = / [(1 + s2)(s2 + 2)]
(B) F(s) = / [(1 + s2)(s2 - 2)]
(C) F(s) = / [(1 - s2)(s2 + 2)]
(D) F(s) = s / [(1 - s2)(s2 + 2)]

Laplace transforms on
handbook page 174 (EECS
section)

## f ( t ) s 2 F(s) s f (0) s 2 f (0)

f ( t ) s 2 F(s)
f ( t ) F(s)

sin t e 0 t sin t

s 2 2

2
(s 1) F(s) 2
s 2
1

F(s) 2
2
s 1 s 2

s 2 F(s) F(s)

s 2 2

Probability of an outcome

## A marksman can hit a bullseye 3 out of 4 shots. What is

the probability he will hit a
bulls-eye with at least 1 of
his next 3 shots?
(A) 3/4
(B) 15/16
(C) 31/32
(D) 63/64

Probability of an outcome

## A marksman can hit a bullseye 3 out of 4 shots. What is

the probability he will hit a
bulls-eye with at least 1 of
his next 3 shots?

(A) 3/4
(B) 15/16
(C) 31/32
(D) 63/64

## Let H = hit, M = miss,

Prob(H) = , Prob(M) =

three shots

MMH + HHM + ...)

## Easier method: Prob(at least

one hit) = 1 Prob(no hits)

1 Prob(no hits) = 1
Prob(MMM)

Prob(MMM) = Prob(M)3 =
(1/4)3 = 1/64

## Answer is 1 1/64 = 63/64

Normal distribution

## Exam scores are distributed

normally with a mean of 73
and a standard deviation of
11. What is the probability of
finding a score between 65
and 80?
(A) 0.4196
(B) 0.4837
(C) 0.5161
(D) 0.6455

Normal distribution

## Exam scores are distributed

normally with a mean of 73 and
a standard deviation of 11.
What is the probability of finding
a score between 65 and 80?
(A) 0.4196
(B) 0.4837
(C) 0.5161

Z < 0.6)

(D) 0.6455

handbook page 20

## Let X = a random score, find

Prob(65 < X < 80)

## Prob(Z < 0.6) Prob(Z < -0.7)

Prob(Z < 0.6) Prob(Z > 0.7)

## Prob(65 < X < 80) 0.7257

0.2420 = 0.4837

Confidence intervals

## What is the 95% confidence

interval for the mean exam
score if the mean is 73 and
the standard deviation is 11
from 25 scores?
(A) 73 4.54
(B) 73 0.91
(C) 73 4.31
(D) 73 0.86

Confidence intervals

## What is the 95% confidence

interval for the mean exam
score if the mean is 73 and
the standard deviation is 11
from 25 scores?

(C) 73 4.31
(D) 73 0.86

## t values handbook page 21

Look up t/2,

= 1 0.95 = 0.05
/2 = 0.025
= 25 1 = 24 degrees of
freedom
t0.025, 24 = 2.064 on page 21

(B) 73 0.91

Confidence intervals on
handbook page 19

s
Formula is X t / 2
n

(A) 73 4.54

## Use formula for population

standard deviation unknown

## Calculate confidence interval

73 (2.064) (11) / 25

Hypothesis testing

## You sample two lots of light bulbs for

mean lifetime. The first lot mean =
792 hours, S.D. = 35 hours, n = 25.
The second lot mean = 776 hours,
S.D. = 24 hours, n = 20. Determine
with 95% confidence whether light
bulbs from the first lot last longer
than those from the second lot.
Provide a statistic value.

## (D) First lot lasts longer, t0 = 1.96

Hypothesis testing

## You sample two lots of light bulbs for

mean lifetime. The first lot mean =
792 hours, S.D. = 35 hours, n = 25.
The second lot mean = 776 hours,
S.D. = 24 hours, n = 20. Determine
with 95% confidence whether light
bulbs from the first lot last longer
than those from the second lot.
Provide a statistic value.

## (A) First lot lasts longer, z0 = -1.96

(B) No difference, z0 = 1.81
(C) No difference, t0 = 1.74
(D) First lot lasts longer, t0 = 1.96

## Use formula for population standard

deviation or variance unknown

Sp
30.63
25 20 2
792 776
t0
1.74
30.63 1 25 1 20

Look up t,

## Hypothesis testing in IE section of

handbook page 198

## Test H0: 1 = 2 vs. H1: 1 > 2

= 1 0.95 = 0.05
= 25 + 20 2 = 43 d.o.f.
t0.05, 43 = 1.96 from page 21 ( > 29)

t0 < t0.05, 43