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Review and Quiz

Water drains
downward through
the unsaturated
zone due to gravity.
The water table is
located at the top of
the saturated zone.
The saturated zone
is the area filled with


but lots of them Example: sandstone .POROSITY – the percentage of open pore space between rock particles (sediment) Big spaces. not a lot of them Example: conglomerate Little spaces.

How do you predict the relationship between porosity and permeability? IOW.Recalling the recent Porosity and Permeability lab. does porosity affect permeability?____________ . make your hypothesis.

1st trial: look at red yellow green only Demo #1 Which size held the most water? Demo #1 Porosity .Amount of open space between sediments .

not a lot of them LESS surface area AL T U EQ OSI R PO Y Little spaces but lots of them GREATER surface area IMPORTANT TO REMEMBER The size of the rock particle DOES NOT change the porosity! .Big spaces.

Porosity is determined by POROSITY 1.Well rounded particles have greater porosity than angular particles. ROUND ROUNDNESS ANGULAR .The amount of open space in between rock particles.Porosity . Shape .

POROSITY 2. PACKING UNPACKED PACKED . the lower the porosity.The more closely packed the particles are. PACKING.

POROSITY 3.If all particles are the same size.The more sorted the particles. they are unsorted (poorly sorted) . SORTING. .If the particles are different sizes. the higher the porosity SORTING . they are sorted.

Sorting does) The porosity is the same for sorted particles.Particle Size alone does NOT affect porosity!!!!! (Shape. but not for unsorted particles. . Packing.

Look at the mixed sediment tube! Why? .

 PERMEABILITY .the ability of rock (tap on the curved red arrow to see the graph!) Look at the arrows below!!! PERMEABILITY material to allow water to pass through it. PARTICLE SIZE .

Which one will drain the fastest? Make your hypothesis .

Permeability! Which one is the fastest? Which one drains the fastest? .


Demo #3 Hypothesis Page Simulation #3 Permeability of Materials (Click on Simulation #3 above to see the demo) .

Demo #4 Rates of Deposition Click play below .


. CAPILLARITY – the process of water adhering to rock particles (cohesion) in small spaces. resulting in an UPWARD movement of the water through rock sediment.

.The height water will rise in a small cylinder (capillary tube) so it is dependent on the diameter of the tube.

then the beads were separated. . Water was added to the beads when they were in contact.The effect of capillarity in soil pores can be seen between the glass beads above. The water is adhering (sticking) to the beads. This is how water moves up a capillarity tube by water molecules attaching to each other. but cohesion keeps a strand of water between the beads.

A quick review Remember! Porosity does not depend on grain size HOWEVER… As particle size permeability As particle size capillarity .

mixed sizes (not in layers) WELL-SORTED PARTICLES: same size (in layers) .POORLY-SORTED PARTICLES: unsorted.


1. Put your name on the top of the lined side of the index card. 2.USING WHAT YOU LEARNED FROM VIEWING THE ABOVE SLIDES ANSWER THE FOLLOWING 10 QUESTION QUIZ ON THE INDEX CARD PROVIDED BY YOUR TEACHER. Skip a line in between each question. 3. Number each question. .

Water was poured into each container to determine porosity and infiltration time. 1. which were filled with equal volumes of uniformly sorted plastic beads. B.The diagrams below represent three containers. A. and C. Which data table best represents the porosity and infiltration time of the beads in containers A. C? A B D . B.

Soil composed of which particle size usually has the greatest capillarity? A) fine sand B) pebbles C) silt D) coarse sand .2.

When rainfall occurs.3. the rainwater will most likely become surface runoff if the land surface is A) impermeable C) sandy B) nearly flat grass D) covered with .

4. pebbles. All particles were spherical in shape and uniform in size within the container. only B) sand. as shown in the diagram below. The results of the activity should have indicated that approximately equal amounts of water were added to the cups of A) silt and pebbles. After the water level reached the surface of each sample. only . the student determined the amount of water that had been added. and the mixture.A student performed a laboratory activity in which water was poured slowly into four cups containing equal volumes of loosely packed sediment samples.

5. Which graph shows the effect of soil permeability on the amount of runoff in an area? .

The diagrams below represent four permeable sediment samples. The sediments are composed of the same material. Which sediment sample will most likely have the fastest groundwater infiltration rate? And why? . but differ in particle size and sorting.6.

What size rock particle can be transported by a stream moving at a velocity of 100 cm/s? A) fine sand B) pebbles C) silt D) coarse sand .7.

The climate of Phoenix. located in the northeastern part of the continent. NY. What type of weathering do we experience according to the below climate graph? A) yellow--strong chemical B) green--moderate chemical with frost action C) blue--slight physical D) purple—strong physical .8. ranges from warm and wet in the summer months to cold and snowy in the winter.

If the amount of precipitation for an area was 125 cm/yr. what type of weathering would be experienced in this region? A) moderate chemical B) strong chemical C) Very slight D) Moderate chemical with frost action .9. and the average yearly temperature was 5oC.

how will the permeability be affected? (increases. answer this question: QUESTION: Which of the following materials would have greater permeability? A) a gravel pit B) a sandy beach C) a muddy field 10 questions 10 pts. decreases. each . FOLLOW THE BELOW INSTRUCTIONS EXACTLY.10. If your last name begins with letter A – M. or stay the same) If your last name begins with the letter N – Z. answer the following question: QUESTION: If the porosity of a material decreases.