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PROSES MANUFAKTUR Injection Molding

PROSES-PROSES MANUFAKTUR Machining • • Forging Extrusion • Rolling Joining • Turning • Welding • Drilling

PROSES-PROSES

MANUFAKTUR

PROSES-PROSES MANUFAKTUR Machining • • Forging Extrusion • Rolling Joining • Turning • Welding • Drilling

Machining

PROSES-PROSES MANUFAKTUR Machining • • Forging Extrusion • Rolling Joining • Turning • Welding • Drilling

Forging

Extrusion

Rolling

Joining

PROSES-PROSES MANUFAKTUR Machining • • Forging Extrusion • Rolling Joining • Turning • Welding • Drilling

Turning

Welding

Drilling

Screw

Milling

Rivets

Flame Cutting

Pins

Reaming

Clips

Grinding

Keys

Sand Casting

Die Casting

Shell Molding

Injection Molding

Coining

Drawing

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

Introduction

Polymer/Plastik

Thermoset

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS Introduction Polymer/Plastik Thermoset A plastic that, when cured by application of heat or

A plastic that, when cured by application of heat or by chemical means, changes into a substantially infusible and product

General properties: more durable, harder, tough, light. Typical uses: automobile parts, construction materials.

Examples:

Unsaturated Polyesters: varnishes, furniture Epoxies & Resins: glues, coating of electrical circuits, composites: fiberglass

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

Introduction

Polymer/Plastik

Elastomers

General properties: these are thermosets, and have rubber like properties. Typical uses: medical masks, gloves

Examples:

Polyurethanes

Silicones

Thermoplastics

A plastic that can be repeatedly softened by heating and hardened by cooling through a temperature range characteristic of the plastic, and that in the softened state, can be shaped by flow into an article by molding or extrusion

General properties: low melting point, softer, flexible. Typical uses: bottles, food wrappers, toys, …

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

EXAMPLE

Polyethylene: packaging, electrical insulation, milk & water bottles Polypropylene: carpet fibers, bumpers, microwave containers Polyvinyl chloride (PVC): cables cover, credit cards, car instrument panels Polystyrene: spoons, Styrofoam Acrylics (PMMA: polymethyl methacrylate): paints, fake fur, plexiglass Polyamide (nylon): textiles, gears, bushing, bearings PET (polyethylene terephthalate): bottles for acidic foods like juices, food trays PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene): non-stick coating, dental floss

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

Plastic Shaping Processes are Important

• Almost unlimited variety of part geometries

• Plastic molding is a net shape process – Further shaping is not needed

• Less energy is required than for metals due to much lower processing temperatures – Handling of product is simplified during production because of lower temperatures

• Painting or plating is usually not required

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

Injection Molding

Polymer is heated to a highly plastic state and forced to flow under high pressure into a mold cavity where it solidifies and the molding is then removed from cavity • Produces components almost always to net shape • Typical cycle time 10 to 30 sec, but cycles of one minute or more are not uncommon • Mold may contain multiple cavities, so multiple moldings are produced each cycle

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

Injection Molded Parts

• Complex and intricate shapes are possible • Shape limitations:

– Capability to fabricate a mold whose cavity is the same geometry as part – Shape must allow for part removal from mold • Part size from 50 g up to 25 kg (more than 25 KG), e.g., automobile bumpers • Injection molding is economical only for large production quantities due to high cost of mold

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

Injection Molding Machine

Two (or four) principal components:

1. Injection unit – Melts and delivers polymer melt – Operates much like an extruder 2. Clamping unit

– Opens and closes mold each injection cycle

  • 3. Injection mold

  • 4. Control system

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

INJECTION MOLDING PROCESS

INJECTION UNIT TYPE

INJECTION UNIT TYPE A) RAM C) PREPLASTICIZER B) RECIPROCATING SCREW

A)

RAM

INJECTION UNIT TYPE A) RAM C) PREPLASTICIZER B) RECIPROCATING SCREW

C) PREPLASTICIZER

INJECTION UNIT TYPE A) RAM C) PREPLASTICIZER B) RECIPROCATING SCREW

B) RECIPROCATING SCREW

Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding Machine

Resin is melt by mechanical shear and thermal energy from heaters

The molten resin is conveyed to a space at the end of the screw- collects in a pool

Here, the mold is closed

Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding Machine • Resin is melt by mechanical shear and thermal energy from

Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding Machine

The entire screw move forward and pushes the molten resin out through the end of barrel

To ensure the resin does not flow backward, a check valve or nonreturn valve is attached to the end of screw

Normally the screw will stay in the forward position, until resin began to harden in the mold

Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding Machine • The entire screw move forward and pushes the molten resin
Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding Machine • The entire screw move forward and pushes the molten resin

Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding Machine

Retraction of the screw, create space at the end of the screw Cooling of the part in the mold, until it can be removed While the part is cooling, the screw turns and melts additional resin

Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding Machine • Retraction of the screw, create space at the end of

Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding Machine

Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding Machine • Feed Zone : The portion of the screw that picks

Feed Zone: The portion of the screw that picks up the material from the feed opening (base of the hopper) and begins to soften the material as it is being conveyed. The flight depths are constant. Transition Zone: The portion of the screw where the root diameter increases gradually resulting in the decrease of the flight depth. This causes the softened plastic pellets to further melt and compress eliminating any of the air pockets. Metering Zone: The depth of the flights in this section are minimum but constant. This helps the accurate control of the melt discharge for the molding shot. In other words, it meters the amount of melt. The flight depths are constant.

CHECK RING

The check ring is used to prevent the plastic from being blown back during the injection phase of the molding cycle. It is similar to a non return valve

CHECK RING The check ring is used to prevent the plastic from being blown back during

Reciprocating Screw Injection Molding Machine

Advantages

More uniform melting

Improved mixing or additives and dispersion throughout the resin

Lower injection pressure Fewer stresses in the part Faster total cycle

INJECTION MOLD

Designing and making mold for injection molding is more complicated than making extrusion die

Mold Parts – mold is placed in between stationary plate and the moveable plate

INJECTION MOLD • Designing and making mold for injection molding is more complicated than making extrusion
INJECTION MOLD • Designing and making mold for injection molding is more complicated than making extrusion

CLAMPING UNIT UNIT

TOGLE

CLAMPING UNIT UNIT TOGLE - Limited clamp force - Lower costs - Lower horsepower - No
  • - Limited clamp force

  • - Lower costs

  • - Lower horsepower

  • - No feedback on load

  • - Not controllable speed

HYDROLIC

High clamp forces Higher costs Higher horse power Easily adjustable Clamp speed controllable Slow speed

PART DEFECT

SHRINKAGE AND WARPAGE

What are shrinkage and warpage?

Shrinkage geometric reduction in size of the part. If the shrinkage is uniform, the part does not deform or change in shape, it simply becomes smaller Warpage when shrinkage is not uniform or if regions of the part shrink unequally

Shrinkage and consequently warpage is affected by processing condition. It is a complex function of machine settings, however a major factor is the pressure and time history during fills, packs and cools.

PART DEFECT SHRINKAGE AND WARPAGE What are shrinkage and warpage?  Shrinkage  geometric reduction in

Shringkage

PART DEFECT SHRINKAGE AND WARPAGE What are shrinkage and warpage?  Shrinkage  geometric reduction in

Warpage

PART DEFECT

OTHER DEFECT

Burnt streaks

If the melt was damaged thermally by to high themperatures

PART DEFECT OTHER DEFECT Burnt streaks If the melt was damaged thermally by to high themperatures
PART DEFECT OTHER DEFECT Burnt streaks If the melt was damaged thermally by to high themperatures

Weld line

High viscosity If themperature and preesure is not high enough, the corner of the flow front will not clompletely develope

PART DEFECT OTHER DEFECT Burnt streaks If the melt was damaged thermally by to high themperatures
PART DEFECT OTHER DEFECT Burnt streaks If the melt was damaged thermally by to high themperatures

PART DEFECT

OTHER DEFECT

Jetting

Jetting is caused by an undeveloped frontal flow of melt in the cavity

PART DEFECT OTHER DEFECT Jetting Jetting is caused by an undeveloped frontal flow of melt in
PART DEFECT OTHER DEFECT Jetting Jetting is caused by an undeveloped frontal flow of melt in

Incomplete filled part

Long flow distance or thin wall Injected volume compound to small- Injection pressure not sufficient – premature frezzing

PART DEFECT OTHER DEFECT Jetting Jetting is caused by an undeveloped frontal flow of melt in
PART DEFECT OTHER DEFECT Jetting Jetting is caused by an undeveloped frontal flow of melt in