4 views

Uploaded by Mahesh Inde

hi

- Airfoil Cornell tutorial
- Aerodynamics Seminar.ppt
- Aerodynamics Lab 2 - Airfoil Pressure Measurements
- Wind tunnel Lab
- Sam Lee Phd Dissertation
- Julia Kim's Physics Project 2012 - Fluid Dynamics
- Upset Recovery 3 b Web
- Lesson 5 - Building on the Basics of Lift - Theory of Flight
- 1.j051235
- EHB en 7.5 Sizing According to ISO 4126 1
- Introduction_to_Aeronautical_Engineering.ppt
- Drag Force in Flow Over a Body
- Sixty years of research on ship rudders effects of design choices on rudder performance.pdf
- Aerodynamic Analysis of Vertical and Horizontal Axis Wind
- Aircraft Viscous Drag Reduction Using Riblets - Viswanath
- 449 - Hydrodynamic Pressure and Impact Loads for High-speed Catamaran or Ses Hull Forms
- HYD_56_1.pdf
- lift and drag chart final
- Hydrod-Prop.pdf
- science project arnone

You are on page 1of 30

Lecture Notes #7

Continuity

Momentum Equation

Bernoullis Equation

Applications of Bernoullis Equation

Pitots Tube

Venturi Meter

Pressures and Velocities over Airfoils

Topics To be Studied

Airfoil Nomenclature

Lift and Drag forces

Lift, Drag and Pressure Coefficients

Uses of Airfoils

Wings

Propellers and Turbofans

Helicopter Rotors

Compressors and Turbines

Hydrofoils (wing-like devices which can lift

up a boat above waterline)

Wind Turbines

Evolution of Airfoils

airfoils with sharp leading edges will have low drag.

In practice, they stalled quickly, and generated considerable drag.

Airfoil

Equal amounts of thickness is added to camber

in a direction normal to the camber line.

Camber Line

Chord Line

An Airfoil is Defined as a

superposition of

Chord Line

Camber line drawn with respect to the

chord line.

Thickness Distribution which is added to

the camber line, normal to the camber line.

Symmetric airfoils have no camber.

Angle of Attack

V

Angle of attack is defined as the angle between the freestream

and the chord line. It is given the symbol .

Because modern wings have a built-in twist distribution, the

angle of attack will change from root to tip.

The root will, in general, have a high angle of attack.

The tip will, in general, have a low (or even a negative) .

Section

Sectional Lift, L

Sectional Drag, D

V

The component of aerodynamic forces normal to the freestream,

per unit length of span (e.g. per foot of wing span), is called

the sectional lift force, and is given the symbol L .

The component of aerodynamic forces along the freestream,

per unit length of span (e.g. per foot of wing span), is called

the sectional drag force, and is given the symbol D .

The sectional lift coefficient Cl is defined as:

Cl

1

V2 c

is 2the airfoil

Here c

chord, i.e. distance

between the leading edge and trailing edge,

measured along the chordline.

The sectional drag force coefficient Cd is

likewise defined as:

Cd

D

1

V2 c

2

Note that...

When we are taking about an entire wing

we use L, D, CL and CD to denote the forces

and coefficients.

When we are dealing with just a section of

the wing, we call the forces acting on that

section (per unit span) L and D , and the

coefficients Cl and Cd

Airfoil

High Pressure

Low velocity

Low Pressure

High velocity

Low Pressure

High velocity

High Pressure

Low velocity

low and vice versa.

Airfoil

High Pressure

Low velocity

Low Pressure

High velocity

Low Pressure

High velocity

High Pressure

Low velocity

low and vice versa.

Resulting Pressure Forces acting on the Airfoil

Low p-p

High velocity

High p-p

Low velocity

Low p-p

High velocity

High p-p

Low velocity

over portions of the airfoil, especially the upper surface.

This is because velocity there is high and the pressures can fall below

atmospheric pressure.

V

L Force normal to the wind direction

Forces acting on the lower side - Force on upper side

Trailing

Edge

Trailing

Edge

lower side

Leading

Edge

dx

Trailing

Edge

Leading

Edge

lower side

upper side

Leading

Edge

p upper side dx

dx

(Continued)

Trailing

Edge

lower side

p upper side dx

Leading

Edge

Trailing

Edge

lower side

p p upper side p dx

Leading

Edge

1

V2 c

Divide left and right sides by

2

plower p pupper p x

L

d

1

1

1

2

2

c

V2 c Leading

Edge

2

2

2

Trailing

Edge

We get:

Pressure Coefficient Cp

From the previous slide,

plower p pupper p x

L

d

1

1

1

2

2

c

V2 c Leading

Edge

2

2

2

Trailing

Edge

coefficient Cl.

The pressure coefficient is defined as:

Cp

Thus,

Trailing

edge

Cl

Leading

edge

p ,lower

p p

1

V2

2

C p ,upper d

x

c

Why do we use abstract quantities such as

Cl and Cp?

Why not directly use physically meaningful

quantities such as Lift force, lift per unit

span , pressure etc.?

One is small, used in a wind tunnel.

The other is large, used on an actual wing.

These will operate in different environments - density, velocity.

This is because high altitude conditions are not easily reproduced

in wind tunnels.

They will therefore have different Lift forces and pressure fields.

They will have identical Cl , Cd and Cp

- if they are geometrically alike

- operate at identical angle of attack, Mach number

and Reynolds number

In other words,

a small airfoil , tested in a wind tunnel.

And a large airfoil, used on an actual wing

will have identical non-dimensional coefficients Cl , Cd and Cp

- if they are geometrically alike

- operate at identical angle of attack, Mach number

and Reynolds number.

This allows designers (and engineers) to build and test

small scale models, and extrapolate qualitative features,

but also quantitative information, from a small scale model

to a full size configuration.

for use in all applications - model aircraft or

full size aircraft

Characteristics of Cl vs.

Stall

Cl

Slope= 2 if is in radians.

Angle of

zero lift

= 0

or radians

the camber of the airfoil

Cambered airfoil

Cl

Angle of

zero lift

= 0

Symmetric Airfoil

or radians

at low angles of attack

Incompressible Flow:

Compressible Flow: Cl

Cl 2 0

2

1 M

Cl ,incompressible

1 M 2

flow, we can easily estimate how the lift will be altered in high

speed flight.

This relation works until the Mach number over the airfoil

exceeds unity, and shocks form on the airfoil.

Drag is caused by

Skin Friction - the air molecules try to drag the airfoil

with them. This effect is due to viscosity.

Form Drag - The flow separates near the trailing edge,

due to the shape of the body. This causes low pressures

near the trailing edge compared to the leading edge.

The pressure forces push the airfoil back.

Wave Drag: Shock waves form over the airfoil,

converting momentum of the flow into heat. The

resulting rate of change of momentum causes drag.

Skin Friction

Particles away

from the

airfoil move

unhindered.

Particles near the

airfoil stick to the

surface, and try to

slow down the

nearby particles.

speed flow is called

the boundary layer.

Laminar Flow

Airfoil Surface

This slope

determines drag.

The mixing between layers is due to molecular motion.

Laminar mixing takes place very slowly.

Drag per unit area is proportional to the slope of the

velocity profile at the wall.

In laminar flow, drag is small.

Turbulent Flow

Airfoil Surface

Turbulent flow is highly unsteady, three-dimensional, and

chaotic. It can still be viewed in a time-averaged manner.

For example, at each point in the flow, we can measure velocities

once every millisecond to collect 1000 samples and and average it.

near the wall due to increased

mixing.

The slope is higher. Drag is higher.

In summary...

Laminar flows have a low drag.

Turbulent flows have a high drag.

- Airfoil Cornell tutorialUploaded bysidyant
- Aerodynamics Seminar.pptUploaded byAbhishekDangi
- Aerodynamics Lab 2 - Airfoil Pressure MeasurementsUploaded byDavid Clark
- Wind tunnel LabUploaded byshmomeny
- Sam Lee Phd DissertationUploaded byChandan Pathak
- Julia Kim's Physics Project 2012 - Fluid DynamicsUploaded byjuliakim6
- Upset Recovery 3 b WebUploaded bydali32
- Lesson 5 - Building on the Basics of Lift - Theory of FlightUploaded byaahsan345
- 1.j051235Uploaded bySagar Dasgupta
- EHB en 7.5 Sizing According to ISO 4126 1Uploaded byTeguh Setiono
- Introduction_to_Aeronautical_Engineering.pptUploaded byviba1995
- Drag Force in Flow Over a BodyUploaded byamin
- Sixty years of research on ship rudders effects of design choices on rudder performance.pdfUploaded bySunil
- Aerodynamic Analysis of Vertical and Horizontal Axis WindUploaded bykiingkang
- Aircraft Viscous Drag Reduction Using Riblets - ViswanathUploaded byOSCARDELTA
- 449 - Hydrodynamic Pressure and Impact Loads for High-speed Catamaran or Ses Hull FormsUploaded byJoe Tahir
- HYD_56_1.pdfUploaded by10teste10
- lift and drag chart finalUploaded byapi-107279294
- Hydrod-Prop.pdfUploaded byfahrgeruste3961
- science project arnoneUploaded byapi-355393621
- Class 20Uploaded byJustinCarlBello
- 10.1.1.69Uploaded bymohammadrezamadadi
- Wing DesignUploaded byOre Ulil Desu
- 3 Aerodynamic PrinciplesUploaded byPatricio
- article1379753908_Eleni et al.pdfUploaded byHaider Addewany Abu Hakema
- DocumentUploaded byalanfelipi
- T. a. Sundaravadivel 2Uploaded byMaruthappan Sundaram
- Grafico VelocidadUploaded byLeslie Gonzales
- Issues in Eulerian Lagrangian Modeling of Sedim 2018 International Journal oUploaded byDaniel Bucheli Pérez
- windUploaded byapi-327121960

- BS 4395-1.pdfUploaded byBuzzi Liviu
- t Intervals for Two Independent SamplesUploaded byldlewis
- TestingSample performaUploaded byNirmal Kumar Bhardwaj
- Daniel Holtzclaw - OCPD Chief Bill City - Chief's Directive 14-1 - New AVL, MDC, Radio Policy - 2014-02-27Uploaded byBrian Bates
- Nandos CSR Priyanka PadayacheeUploaded byPriyanka Padayachee
- Critique 1Uploaded byMonishKurra
- Emotional Intelligence Training: Case Study - MedradUploaded byIHHPManager
- Doamne Ajuta!Uploaded byOracleGeek2009
- report on condenser.docxUploaded byDheeraj Shukla
- Free Physiology Books PDFUploaded byTonya
- performance analysis of wdm systemUploaded bySrikanth Goud Nagelli
- Preventing File Inclusion Attacks on WebsiteUploaded byInternational Journal Of Emerging Technology and Computer Science
- The Anatomy of the Facebook Social GraphUploaded byIndoplaces
- ed walsh resume id s00005332Uploaded byapi-308452787
- Intro to Engineering Design Study GuideUploaded byMadeline Rice
- 10 Steps to Remember in InventoryUploaded byFunandmore Forall
- Assignment # 1Uploaded bySrinath Ranga
- Brinell Hardness Testing PresentationUploaded byAldi Zuldiansyah
- Zen 10c1ar a v2 OmronUploaded byCabrera Rodriguez
- Sr18 Quickstart Guide RevcUploaded byyouedan
- CHAPTER 1Uploaded bySarah Fadzlullah
- Freemrcogpart2Uploaded byKonstantinos Papadakis
- Petri NetsUploaded byKhoZouzo
- Front PageUploaded byMurughesh Murughesan
- P44x en T F65 GlobalUploaded byirfu
- EOTA TR020_2004Uploaded byGothama_GE
- GODREJUploaded byArun Kumar
- 9A05506 Computer NetworksUploaded bysivabharathamurthy
- SeriesC Catalog 2 GREENHECKUploaded byJeffrey Arandia
- Network Neutrality and the Economics of CongestionUploaded bySarahYasmin