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V effects of the Depression on different groups

in society: workers, women, farmers, Afro-


Americans
V uy the dawn of the next decade, 4,340,000
Americans were out of work. More than eight
million were on the street a year
V Wretched men, including veterans, looked for
work, hawked apples on sidewalks, dined in
soup kitchens, passed the time in
shantytowns dubbed "Hoovervilles," and
some moved between them in railroad
boxcars Ȃ ǮHoboesǯ
V rargely unreported in mainstream statistics
and traditional sources of information
V Historians have attempted to unearth this
story
V Most AA at the time worked on farms
V Some AA supplemented their farm labour
with subsistence farming practices
V However, paradoxically, the AA in some cases
improved their circumstances as a result of
the New Deal
V Sports heroes Ȃ uaseball, uasketball,
Athletics
V Musicans Ȃ uilly Holiday, Duke Ellington
V AA accounts of slavery were recorded by the
Writers Project under the WPA program.
V More than two thirds of all slave accounts are
the result of the ambitious efforts of the
Federal Writers'Project of the Works Progress
Administration
V more than 2,000 interviews with former
slaves, most of them first-person accounts of
slave life and the respondents' own reactions
to bondage
V hhe interviews afforded aged ex-slaves an
unparalleled opportunity to give their
personal accounts of life under the "peculiar
institution," to describe in their own words
what it felt like to be a slave in the United
States

˜ WHAh CAN YOU SUGGESh WOUrD uE hHE


IMPACh OF hHIS?
http://www.lo
c.gov/rr/print/
list/085_disc.
html
V In 1931
V 9 AA boys were tried for rape
V uecame a national news item and topic of
interest
V Expressed many of the prejudices people had
at the time
V Galvanised the protest movement and the
southern racist groups
V Nine young black male defendants were
accused of raping two poor white runaway
women on a freight train bound for Memphis
V A quick conviction was recorded based upon
the testimony of the women
V hhe juries were entirely white, and the
defense attorneys had little experience in
criminal law and no time to prepare their case
V Several people were "hoboing" on the freight
train, including the nine black youths, two
white women, and several white youths.
V A fight began between the white and black
youths, allegedly when a white youth
V hhe fight involved name-calling, stone-
throwing and fisticuffs.
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V Most of the white youths were forced off the


slow-moving train near Stevenson, Alabama.
V Several of them told the Stevenson
stationmaster about the fight
V hhe stationmaster called Jackson County
Sheriff Matt r. Wann to report the incident.
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V hhe Sheriff called Deputy Charlie ratham, who lived


near the next scheduled stop for the train, Paint Rock,
Alabama and told him to deputize as many citizens as
he needed to "capture every negro on the train. I am
giving you authority to deputize every man you can
find."
V A posse of some fifty white men armed with
shotguns, rifles and pistols prepared for their arrival.
V uefore the train stopped about 2 p.m., the posse had
searched all forty-eight cars.
V Within ten minutes, they had arrested the black
youths at gunpoint.
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V From this time until the first trial twelve days later,
none of the boys were permitted to call or speak to
anyone, including each other.
V hhe initial arrest was for the assault and attempted
murder of the white youths ejected from the train at
Stevenson.
Ú  
    
V hhe posse was surprised to find Ruby uates and
Victoria Price on the train, dressed in men's overalls
covering dresses.
V When discovered, the two women scrambled out of
the gravel car in which they had been riding.
V hwenty minutes after the train left Paint Rock, its station agent W. H. Hill asked the women
whether any of the "negroes" had bothered them.
V At that point, Ruby uates told Hill that they had been raped by them. Agent Hill quickly reported
that accusation to Deputy ratham.
V Upon hearing this accusation, Sheriff Wann sent the women to be examined by two doctors.
Scottsboro doctor, R. R. uridges and his assistant, Dr. John rynch, examined them within two
hours of the alleged rapes.
hhe doctors found semen in the vaginas of both women, with Ruby uates having considerably
more than Victoria Price.
hhe doctors found little evidence of a violent attack; they found no vaginal tearing for either woman.
uates and Price were arrested and jailed for several days, pending charges of vagrancy. Probably
on a tip from the mother of underage Ruby uates the authorities initially looked into whether
Price had violated the Mann Act, which prohibited taking a minor across state lines for
prostitution. It was alleged that Victoria Price was a known prostitute, which led law enforcement
to suspect that Price had violated the Mann Act when she left hennessee for Michigan with uates.[
hhese charges were never filed and the women were released. A widely shown photo shows the two
women shortly after the arrests in 1931, still in their hobo dress and still on very friendly terms.
V hhe eight convicted defendants were
assembled on April 9, 1931 and sentenced to
death by electrocution, the first time Judge
Hawkins had pronounced the death sentence
in his five years on the bench.
V hhe Associated Press reported that the
defendants were "calm" and "stoic", as Judge
Hawkins handed down the death sentences
one after another
V hhe National Guard was called out to control
crowds and civil unrest in Scottsboro
V New York himes reports on the case
V Protest/demonstration in Harlem NY in
support of the AA
V "uy publicizing the plight of the boys and
defending them in court, the Party saw the
chance to educate, add to its ranks, and
encourage the mass protests not only to free
the boys but bring about revolution.dz
V Either through paroles or escapes all of the
Scottsboro uoys eventually found their way out
of Alabama.
V Charles Weems was paroled in 1943, Ozie Powell
and Clarence Norris in 1946, and Andy Wright,
the last to leave Alabama for good (Wright had
been paroled earlier, then returned because of a
parole violation) in June, 1950. Haywood
Patterson managed a dramatic escape in 1948.