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OF MATERIALS

*FORCES ON MATERIALS

Understand the forces on materials

A area

d diameter

d change in diameter

E Youngs modulus

F or P Force

G Modulus of rigidity

L length

U strain energy

L change in length

- strain

- shear strain

- density

- stress

- shear stress

- poissons ratio

b. dynamic

c. impact

d. fatigue and alternating loads

Static force

- do not change

- example:- the building

* Impact Force

In mechanics, an impact is a high force or

shock applied over a short time period when

two or more bodies collide.

Example: During the hammer touches the nail

*Dynamic

force

- constantly changing

- example:- the vehicle on the bridge

- Charges in effect at certain times.

- example:- i. the shaft is mounted on the windmill.

ii. when a load is suspended on a spring.

b.

c.

d.

e.

resulted in extension

LOAD

Before

After

resulted in shorten

Before

After

resulted in bending

resulted in shearing

resulted in torque

Torsion

Tensile stress

A, area

Bar subjected to the force P

cause the bar having extension.

force be acting on a cross section x-x of the plane.

value P must be produced.

external forces for load P.

Type of stress

b. Compressive stresses.

c. Shear stress.

ratio of force (P) with a cross-sectional area (A).

force.

The stress is often determined by dividing the total

applied load (F) by the total area resisting deformation

by the load (A);

F

A

The unit of stress are Newtons per square meter

(N/m2 ).

One Newton per square meter is equal to a Pascal (Pa).

The strain is often determined by dividing the total

change in length of sample (L) by the original length

(L);

L

L

Strain has no net unit since it is defined as the

units always cancel.

Consequently any units may be attached to the

number representing strain.

Tensile Stress

cross-sectional area, with typical units of pounds per square

inch (psi) or Newton per square meter, also known as Pascal

(Pa).

stress are tensile, compressive, and shear. An understanding

of tensile stress is important in selecting materials for

mechanical engineering and design applications.

Tensile Stress

A material that is under tensile stress will elongate, or

stretch, when it experiences strain.

material may not return to its original state when the force is

removed and permanent deformation will occur. The

relationship between the applied stress and the

corresponding strain can be used to predict the behavior of a

material when it is exposed to tensile stress.

Compressive Stress

to withstand axially directed pushing forces. When the limit

of compressive strength is reached, materials are crushed

* Compressive strength is often measured on a

universal testing machine. Measurements of compressive

strength are affected by the specific test method and

conditions of measurement. Compressive strengths are

usually reported in relationship to a specific

technical standard that may, or may not, relate to end-use

performance.

Tensile strain

divided by the original length of the test piece.

A material that is under tensile stress will elongate, or

stretch, when it experiences strain. A material exposed to

low stress will return to its original dimensions after the force

is removed.

* Youngs Modulus

the initial, linear portion of a stress-strain curve is called

Young's modulus, also known as the tensile modulus. It is

defined as the ratio of the uniaxial stress over the uniaxial

strain in the range of stress in which Hooke's Law holds. It is a

measure of the stiffness of an elastic material and is a

quantity used to characterize materials.

* It can be experimentally determined from the slope of a

stress-strain curve created during tensile tests conducted on

a sample of the material. In anisotropic materials, Young's

modulus may have different values depending on the

direction of the applied force with respect to the material's

structure.

* Youngs Modulus

* It is also commonly, but incorrectly, called the

modulus is the most common elastic modulus used, but there

are other elastic moduli measured, too, such as the

bulk modulus and the shear modulus.

holds.

E=

Exercise

mm2 extends by 1.5 mm when applied with a

tensile force of 140 kN at both ends.

situation.

b.Calculate the tensile stress in the rod.

c. Determine the strain.

d.Determine the Youngs Modulus of the rod.

Exercise

load of 100 kN. If the stress in the wire is 60

MN/m2, calculate the:

i. strain of the wire

Given Ecopper = 112 GN/m2

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