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JJ310 STRENGTH

OF MATERIALS

*FORCES ON MATERIALS
Understand the forces on materials

BASIC SYMBOL USING IN STRENGTH OF MATERIALS:-

A area
d diameter
d change in diameter
E Youngs modulus
F or P Force
G Modulus of rigidity
L length
U strain energy

L change in length
- strain
- shear strain
- density
- stress
- shear stress
- poissons ratio

The Types Of Loads And Their Effect

*The type of force on materials:a. static


b. dynamic
c. impact
d. fatigue and alternating loads
Static force

- do not change
- example:- the building

* Impact Force
In mechanics, an impact is a high force or
shock applied over a short time period when
two or more bodies collide.
Example: During the hammer touches the nail

*Dynamic

force
- constantly changing
- example:- the vehicle on the bridge

*Fatigue and alternating loads


- Charges in effect at certain times.
- example:- i. the shaft is mounted on the windmill.
ii. when a load is suspended on a spring.

* The effect of force on materials:a.

It become to resulted in extension

b.

It become to resulted in shorten

c.

It become to resulted in bending

d.

It become to resulted in shearing

e.

It become to resulted in torque

The effect of force on materials:-

resulted in extension

LOAD
Before

After

resulted in shorten

Before

After

resulted in bending

resulted in shearing

resulted in torque

Torsion

Tensile stress

A, area
Bar subjected to the force P

* Figure above shows a bar on forces P. The force P applied will


cause the bar having extension.

* If the observed cross-section of the shaft, we find there is


force be acting on a cross section x-x of the plane.

* To ensure it is in a situation of equilibrium, a force opposite


value P must be produced.

* This internal force is called STRESS, and it is a response to


external forces for load P.

Internal Force at XX- section

Type of stress

* There are three types of stress;a. Tensile stress.


b. Compressive stresses.
c. Shear stress.

* Stress depends on the magnitude and direction of force

applied and the cross-sectional area of the stress () is the


ratio of force (P) with a cross-sectional area (A).

The average unit stress, here after call stress (), is a

measure of the intensity of the applied and resisting


force.
The stress is often determined by dividing the total
applied load (F) by the total area resisting deformation
by the load (A);
F

A
The unit of stress are Newtons per square meter
(N/m2 ).
One Newton per square meter is equal to a Pascal (Pa).

The average amount of distortion per unit length is

called the unit strain hereafter called strain ().


The strain is often determined by dividing the total
change in length of sample (L) by the original length
(L);
L

L
Strain has no net unit since it is defined as the

meters of change per meter of length (m/m). The


units always cancel.
Consequently any units may be attached to the
number representing strain.

Tensile Stress

* Tensile stress occurs when a material is subjected to pulling

or stretching force. Stress is defined as a force applied over a


cross-sectional area, with typical units of pounds per square
inch (psi) or Newton per square meter, also known as Pascal
(Pa).

* The type of stress that a material is exposed to will depend

on how the force is being applied. The three basic types of


stress are tensile, compressive, and shear. An understanding
of tensile stress is important in selecting materials for
mechanical engineering and design applications.

Tensile Stress

* The dimensions of an object under stress will change due to

the strain or deformation that occurs when a force is applied.


A material that is under tensile stress will elongate, or
stretch, when it experiences strain.

* A material exposed to low stress will return to its original

dimensions after the force is removed. At high stresses, a


material may not return to its original state when the force is
removed and permanent deformation will occur. The
relationship between the applied stress and the
corresponding strain can be used to predict the behavior of a
material when it is exposed to tensile stress.

Compressive Stress

* Compressive stress is the capacity of a material or structure


to withstand axially directed pushing forces. When the limit
of compressive strength is reached, materials are crushed
* Compressive strength is often measured on a
universal testing machine. Measurements of compressive
strength are affected by the specific test method and
conditions of measurement. Compressive strengths are
usually reported in relationship to a specific
technical standard that may, or may not, relate to end-use
performance.

Tensile strain

* Tensile strain represents the amount of stretch produced,


divided by the original length of the test piece.

* The dimensions of an object under stress will change due to

the strain or deformation that occurs when a force is applied.


A material that is under tensile stress will elongate, or
stretch, when it experiences strain. A material exposed to
low stress will return to its original dimensions after the force
is removed.

* Youngs Modulus

* In solid mechanics, the slope of the stress-strain curve at any

point is called the tangent modulus. The tangent modulus of


the initial, linear portion of a stress-strain curve is called
Young's modulus, also known as the tensile modulus. It is
defined as the ratio of the uniaxial stress over the uniaxial
strain in the range of stress in which Hooke's Law holds. It is a
measure of the stiffness of an elastic material and is a
quantity used to characterize materials.
* It can be experimentally determined from the slope of a
stress-strain curve created during tensile tests conducted on
a sample of the material. In anisotropic materials, Young's
modulus may have different values depending on the
direction of the applied force with respect to the material's
structure.

* Youngs Modulus
* It is also commonly, but incorrectly, called the

elastic modulus or modulus of elasticity, because Young's


modulus is the most common elastic modulus used, but there
are other elastic moduli measured, too, such as the
bulk modulus and the shear modulus.

* It is defined as the ratio of the uniaxial stress over the

uniaxial strain in the range of stress in which Hooke's Law


holds.

E=

Exercise

A 2.5 m rod with cross sectional area of 1290


mm2 extends by 1.5 mm when applied with a
tensile force of 140 kN at both ends.

a.Draw a free body diagram for the above


situation.
b.Calculate the tensile stress in the rod.
c. Determine the strain.
d.Determine the Youngs Modulus of the rod.

Exercise

A 4 meter long copper wire is loaded with a


load of 100 kN. If the stress in the wire is 60
MN/m2, calculate the:
i. strain of the wire

ii. elongation of the wire


Given Ecopper = 112 GN/m2