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SENSORS & MACHINE

VISION
Requirements of a sensor, Principles and Applications of the
following types of sensors Position of sensors (Piezo
Electric Sensor, LVDT, Resolvers, Optical Encoders,
Pneumatic Position Sensors), Range Sensors (Triangulation
Principle, Structured, Lighting Approach, Time of Flight
Range Finders, Laser Range Meters), Proximity Sensors
(Inductive, Hall Effect, Capacitive, Ultrasonic and Optical
Proximity Sensors), Touch Sensors, (Binary Sensors, Analog
Sensors), Wrist Sensors, Compliance Sensors, Slip Sensors.

MACHINE VISION
Camera, Frame Grabber, Sensing and Digitizing
Image Data Signal Conversion, Image Storage,
Lighting Techniques. Image Processing and Analysis
Data Reduction: Edge detection, Segmentation
Feature Extraction and Object Recognition Algorithms.

Applications

Inspection,

Identification, Visual Serving and Navigation.

INTRODUCTION
A transducer is a device that converts one type
of physical variable (E.g Force, Pressure,
Temperature, Velocity, Flow rate ) into other
form.
Why Conversion
To make it use in
digital Computers.
A sensor is a transducer that is used to make a
measurement of physical variable.

INTRODUCTION
Few examples :
Strain Gauges
Thermocouples
Speedometers
Pitot tubes
All sensors are transducers, but not all transducers
are sensors

INTRODUCTION
Calibration is a procedure by which the
relationship between the measured variable of
the converted output signal is established.
Sensors
External Sensor
Contact
Non Contact

Internal Sensor

INTRODUCTION
Internal State Sensors deals with the detection
of variables such as arm joint position.
External State Sensors deals with detection of
variables such as range, proximity, guidance.
Based on the converted signal
Analog Transducer
Digital Transducer

Requirements of Sensors

Accuracy
Precision
Operating Range
Speed of Response
Calibration
Reliability
Cost & ease of operation

PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS
Piezo electric materials when stretched or
compressed generate electric charges, with one
face of the material becoming positively
charged and the opposite face negatively
charged. As a result voltage is generated.
Measurement of pressure,force,acceleration
Piezo material : Quartz, Barium titanate,
Zirconate titanate.

PIEZOELECTRIC SENSORS
The net charge q = kx =SF
x charge displacement
F Force applied
S Charge Sensitivity
Charge Sensitivity depends on
1.Material concerned(Depends on S
Value)
2. Orientation of the crystal

LVDT

CONSTRUCTION &
PRINCIPLE
The LVDT consists of a single primary
winding and two secondary windings
wound on a hollow former.
The secondary windings have an equal
number of turns but are connected in
series opposition so that emfs induced in
the coils oppose each other.
The primary winding is connected to an a.c
source, whose frequency range from 50Hz
to 20kHz.

CONSTRUCTION &
PRINCIPLE
The position of the movable core determines
the flux linkage between the a.c excited
primary winding and each of the two
secondary windings.
The core is made up of nickel iron alloy is
slotted longitudinally to reduce eddy current
loss.

CONSTRUCTION &
PRINCIPLE
The displacement to be measured is applied to an
arm attached to the core. With the core in the
center, or reference, position, the induced EMF in
the secondary winding are equal, and since they
oppose each other, the output voltage will be zero

CONSTRUCTION &
PRINCIPLE
When an externally applied force moves the core to the lefthand coil. The e.m.f induced in the left hand coil > right
hand coil.
The magnitude of the output voltage and it is in phase with
the voltage of the left hand coil.
Similarly, when a core moves to a right

ADVANTAGES

Infinite resolution is present in LVDT


High output
LVDT gives High sensitivity
Very good linearity
Ruggedness
LVDT Provides Less friction
Low hysteresis
LVDT gives Low power consumption.

DISADVANTAGES
Very high displacement is required for generating high
voltages.
Shielding is required since it is sensitive to magnetic field.
The performance of the transducer gets affected by
vibrations
Its is greatly affected by temperature changes.

APPLICATIONS
LVDTs provide position feedback in hydraulic applications by
monitoring the performance accuracy of actuators and
cylinders to improve operational efficiencies
Another example is robotic arm picking up a piece of glass. If
the control system does not know when to stop the arm, based
on position feedback from an LVDT, the hydraulic cylinder
could drive the arm right through the piece of glass.