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While legislation itself has provided many

substantive benefits to industrial workers, the


delays of labour judiciary have reduced the
effectiveness of these benefits . . . . . .

Second Five Year Plan emphasized while the observance of stricter


discipline, both on the part of labour and
management, is a matter which cannot be
imposed by legislation alone, it has to be
achieved by organizations of employers and
workers by evolving suitable sanctions on
their own. . .

In 1957, the 15th Session of Indian Labour Conference

evolved a code of discipline, which voluntarily bind the


employer and workers to settle all disputes and grievances
by mutual negotiations, conciliation and voluntary
arbitration.

In March 1958, the code of discipline was accepted by all

the major central organizations of labour

It applies to both public and private industries.


The code has been accepted by 180 employers and 115

trade unions which are not members of any central


employees' organizations.

To maintain Discipline in Industry both in public and

private sector there has to be a just recognition by


employers and workers of the rights and
responsibilities of either party

To ensure a proper and willing discharge by either

party of its obligations

The Central and State Governments, on their part,

are required to examine and set right any


shortcomings in the machinery they constitute for
the administration of labour laws

1. Steps by workers & employers organizations

in case of breach of code:

Ask for explanation


Order to set right the infringement
Issue warning to the unit
Levy penalties
Disaffiliate the unit from membership

2. Grave, wilful & persistent breaches of the


code by any party should be widely publicised
3. Failure to observe the code would entail
derecognition normally for a period of one
year [increased or decreased]

No unilateral action should be taken in


connection with any industrial matter
Existing machinery for settlement of
disputes should be utilized
There should be no strike or lock-out
without notice
Affirming their faith in democratic
principles, they bind themselves to settle all
future differences, disputes and grievances
by mutual negotiation, conciliation and
voluntary arbitration;
Neither party will have recourse to coercion,
intimidation, victimization, go-slow, etc.

They will avoid litigation, sit-down and stayin strikes, lock-outs


They will establish upon a mutually agreed
basis, a grievance procedure which will
ensure a speedy and full investigation
leading to settlement
They will abide by various stages in the
grievance procedure and take no arbitrary
action which would by-pass this procedure
They will educate the management
personnel and workers regarding their
obligations to each other

Not to increase work-loads unless

agreed upon or settled otherwise


Not to support or encourage any
unfair labour practice
To take prompt action for (a)
settlement of grievances and (b)
implementation of settlements,
awards, decision and orders
To display in conspicuous places in
the undertaking the provisions of
this code in the local language(s)

To distinguish between actions justifying


immediate discharge and those where
discharge must be preceded by warning,
reprimand, suspension or some other form
of disciplinary action and to arrange that all
such disciplinary action should be subject to
an appeal through normal grievance
procedure
To take appropriate disciplinary action
against its officers and members in cases
where enquiries reveal that they were
responsible for precipitate action by workers
leading to indiscipline
To recognize the union activities

Not to engage in any form of physical


duress;
Not to permit demonstrations which are not
peaceful
Members will not engage or cause other
employees to engage in any union activity
during working hours
To discourage unfair labour practices such
as (a) negligence of duty, (b) careless
operation, (c) damage to property, (d)
interference with or disturbance to normal
work and (e) insubordination;

To take prompt action to implement

awards, agreements, settlements


and decisions
To display in conspicuous places in
the union offices, the provisions of
this Code in the local languages
To express disapproval and to take
appropriate action against officebearers and members for indulging
in action against the spirit of this
code

It is only a gentleman's agreement between employers and

employees to maintain a standard of discipline in dealings with


each other with the main object of securing better discipline in
industry and to facilitate peaceful settlement of disputes

There is no legal binding on code of discipline


However, the organizations of employers and workers are

required to apply sanctions against their members for violating


the code

These sanctions have been laid down by Standing Labour

Committee Indian Labour Conference

They are reformative in character and not punitive.

The collective bargaining process can be

possible only when employer recognizes a


trade union as bargaining agent and agree to
negotiate with it because it is difficult to
negotiate with multiple trade unions in a
single organization. Therefore, it is a business
necessity
The Trade Unions Act, 1926 has no provisions

relating to it
However, State legislations are available

Election by Secret Ballot Method


Check-Off method
Verification by union membership by

Directorate
Rule of Thumb or Intelligent guessing

1. Right to raise issues with the management


2. Right to collect membership fees within the
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

premises of the organization


Right to demand check-off facility
Right to hold discussions with the employees
at a suitable place within the premises
Right to discuss members grievances with
the employer
Right to inspect the place of employment
Right to nominate its members in
committees formed by the management for
the sake of IR

Where there is more than one union, a union


claiming recognition should have been
functioning for at least one year after
registration. [Where there is only one union, this
condition would not apply]
2. The membership of the union should cover at
least 15% of the workers in the establishment
concerned. Membership would be counted only
to those who had paid their subscription for at
least three months during the period of six
months immediately proceeding the reckoning.
3. A union may claim to be recognised as a
representative union for an industry in a local
area if it has a membership of atleast 25% of
the workers of that industry in that area.
1.

4.When a union is recognised,


there should be no change in its
position for a period of two
years
5.Where there are several
unions in an industry or
establishment, the one with the
largest membership should be
recognised

6. In the case of trade union


federations, which are not affiliated
to any of the major central
organisations of labour, the
question of recognition would have
to be dealt with separately.
7.Only unions, which observe
Code of Discipline, would be
entitled for recognition

Initially by the end of March, 1962, the code was

accepted voluntarily by about 900 independent


employers and trade unions.
The number increased to around 3000 by the end of

1967
Over the years, however, the willingness and enthusiasm

of the parties to observe the code has declined, and they


have developed an attitude of indifference to the code

It has proved to be difficult for them to abide by self-

imposed discipline in terms of obligations backed only by


moral sanctions

Your response and suggestions . . . . . . . .

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