ppt on kinematics of robot

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ppt on kinematics of robot

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- Roboethics a Navigating Overview - Spyros
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- DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS OF MOBILE ROBOTS IN EDUCATION
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- Robotics Lecture 1
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robots and

introduction to

kinematics of robots

Kinematics: constraints on

getting around the environment

kinematics

The effect of a robots

geometry on its motion.

wheeled

platform

s

to sort of difficult

manipulator

modeling

An effector is any device that affects the environment.

A robot's effector is under the control of the robot.

Effectors:

legs,

wheels,

arms,

fingers.

the desired effect on the environment,

this is based on the robot's task.

An actuator is the actual mechanism that enables the

effector to execute an action.

Actuators typically include:

include

electric motors,

hydraulic cylinders,

pneumatic cylinders,

etc.

interchangeably to mean "whatever makes the robot take an

action."

This is not really proper use:

Actuators and effectors are not the same thing.

And we'll try to be more precise.

Most simple actuators control a single degree of freedom,

i.e., a single motion (e.g., up-down, left-right, in-out, etc.).

A sliding part on a plotter controls one translational degree of freedom.

determining how it can affect its world,

and therefore how well, if at all, it can accomplish its task.

We said many times before that sensors must be matched to the robot's

task.

Similarly, effectors must be well matched to the robot's task also.

number of DOF and the geometry.

DOF

In general, a free body in space as 6 DOF:

three for translation (x,y,z),

three for orientation/rotation (roll, pitch, and yaw).

how many DOF are available to the robot,

how many total DOF any given robot has.

are controllable.

Usually not all DOF are controllable, which makes robot

control harder.

To demonstrate, use a pen

in your hand..

A car has 3 DOF:

position (x,y) and

orientation (theta).

driving: through the gas pedal and the forward-reverse gear;

steering: through the steering wheel.

are motions that cannot be done.

Example of such motions is moving sideways (that's

why parallel parking is hard).

How many

degrees of

freedom does

your hand have,

with your

forearm fixed in

position?

(Hint: Its not 6)

Answer

on next

slide

Part

Wrist

Palm

Fingers

Thumb

Total

DoF Comment

2 1. Side-to-side

2. Up-down

1 1. Open-close a little

4*4 1.

2.

4 1.

2.

23

1 @ each of two joints

2 @ base (attached to wrist)

2 @ visible joints

Kinematics:

VL

VR

(e.g., pushing the gas pedal) and what the robot does as a result

(moving forward).

A car can get to any 2D position but it may have to follow a very

complicated trajectory.

Parallel parking requires a discontinuous trajectory with respect

to the velocity.

It means that the car has to stop and go.

Definition of a

HOLONOMIC robot

When the number of controllable DOF is equal

to the total number of DOF on a robot, the robot

is called holonomic. (i.e. the hand built by

Uland Wong).

Holonomic

<= >

Non-Holonomic

<= >

than total DOF, the robot is non-holonomic.

If the number of controllable DOF is larger

than the total DOF, the robot is redundant.

(like a human hand, we did not build such

robot yet)

Redundant

<= >

A human arm has 7 DOF:

3 in the shoulder,

1 in the elbow,

3 in the wrist

A free object in 3D space (e.g., the hand, the finger tip) can

have at most 6 DOF!

So there are redundant ways of putting the hand at a

particular position in 3D space.

This is the core of why robot manipulation is very hard!

One minute test!

SONY ROBOTS

humanoid robot designed by Japan Science and Technology Corporation in

Tokyo which can walk on its legs and respond to stimulation through a sensor,

shakes hand with Malaysia's Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad during the

opening of the Expo Science & Technology 2001 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia,

Monday, July 2, 2001. (AP Photo/Andy Wong)

This is in any case simplified

Manipulation

In locomotion (mobile robot), the body of the robot

is moved to get to a particular position and

orientation.

In contrast - a manipulator moves itself

typically to get the end effector (e.g., the hand, the

finger, the fingertip)

to the desired 3D position and orientation.

space with the tip of your index finger;

that's what a typical manipulator has to do.

Issues in Manipulation

In addition: manipulators need to:

grasp objects,

move objects.

But those tasks are extensions of the basic reaching discussed

above.

Because the end effector is attached to the whole arm, we

have to worry about the whole arm:

the arm must move so that it does not try to violate its own joint

limits,

it must not hit itself or the rest of the robot, or any other obstacles

in the environment.

Manipulation - Teleoperation

Thus, doing autonomous manipulation is very

challenging.

Manipulation was first used in tele-operation,

where human operators would move artificial arms

to handle hazardous materials.

Complicated duplicates of human arms, with 7 DOF

were built.

It turned out that it was quite difficult for human

operators to learn how to tele-operate such arms

Interface

One alternative today is to put the human arm

into an exo-skeleton, in order to make the

control more direct.

Using joy-sticks, for example, is much harder

for high DOF.

Exo-skeletons used in Hollywood Robotics

Because even as we saw with locomotion, there is typically

no direct and obvious link between:

what the effector needs to do in physical space

and what the actuator does to move it.

and the resulting effector motion is called kinematics.

In order to control a manipulator, we have to know its

kinematics:

1. what is attached to what,

2. how many joints there are,

3. how many DOF for each joint,

etc.

Kinematics

Given all the joint angles - where is the tip ?

Inverse Kinematics

Given a tip position - what are the possible joint angles ?

Dynamics

To accelerate the tip by a given amount how

much torque should a particular joint motor put

out ?

We can formalize all of this mathematically.

To get an equation which will tell us how to convert

from, say, angles in each of the joints, to the

Cartesian positions of the end effector/point is

called:

computing the manipulator kinematics

position into a set of joint angles for the arm (thetas)

is called:

inverse kinematics.

programming! Publishable! LISP

Links

Joints:

End Effector

2 DOFs

Robot Basis

Joints.

Prismatic Link

Joints.

Revolute Link

Homogeneous Coordinates

Homogeneous coordinates: embed 3D

vectors into 4D by adding a 1

More generally, the transformation matrix T

has the form:

Rot. Matrix

Trans. Vector

T

a11 a12 a13 b1

a21 a22 a23 b2

a31 a32 a33 b3

c1 c2 c3

sf

It is presented in more

detail on the WWW!

Links and joints

End effector, tool

Accuracy vs. Repeatability

Workspace

Reachability

Manipulability

Redundancy

Configuration Space

Direct Kinematics

Where is my hand?

Direct Kinematics:

HERE!

Direct Kinematics

Position of tip in (x,y) coordinates

1) Draw sketch

2) Number links. Base=0, Last link = n

3) Identify and number robot joints

4) Draw axis Zi for joint i

5) Determine joint length ai-1 between Zi-1 and Zi

6) Draw axis Xi-1

7) Determine joint twist i-1 measured around Xi-1

8) Determine the joint offset di

9) Determine joint angle i around Zi

10+11) Write link transformation and concatenate

Manipulation

Reliably position the tip - go from one position to

another position

Dont hit anything, avoid obstacles

Make smooth motions

at reasonable speeds and

at reasonable accelerations

Adjust to changing conditions i.e. when something is picked up respond to the change

in weight

Inverse

Kinematics

How do I put my

hand here?

Inverse kinematics is computationally intense.

functions are nonlinear and complex , especially for higher dimensions than 2

Difficult to visualize

is redundant.

Manipulation involves:

trajectory planning (over time)

inverse kinematics

inverse dynamics

dealing with redundancy

Kinematics

Direct Kinematics

x = L1*cos(t1) + L2*cos(t1+t2)

y = L1* sin(t1) + L2*sin(t1+t2)

Given the joint angles t1 and t2 we can compute the position of the tip

(x,y)

Inverse Kinematics

Given x and y we can compute t1 and t2

t2 = acos[(x^2 + y^2 - L1^2 - L2^2)/(2*L1*L2)]

This gives us two values for t2, now one can compute the two

corresponding values of t1.

See next slide

Inverse Kinematics

There may be multiple solutions

Elbow down - Elbow up

A Dynamic Simulator

= kinematics + force modeling

Building blocks

of

masses

springs

muscles

www.sodaconstructor.com

Wheeled Robots

~ 1.5 cm to a side

temperature sensor & two motors

travels 1 inch in 3 seconds

untethered !!

Pocketbot

radio unit

Khepera

linear vision

gripper

Cricket

Accessorize!

video

Kinematics of

Differential

drive

Differential Drive is the most

common kinematic choice

All of the miniature robots

Pioneer, Rug warrior

determines its turning angle

Given the wheels velocities or positions,

what is the robots velocity/position ?

VL

VR

1) Specify system measurements

2) Determine the point (the radius)

around

which the robot is

turning.

3) Determine the speed at which the

robot is

turning to obtain the

robot velocity.

1) Specify system measurements

- consider possible coordinate

systems

VL

2d

VR

1) Specify system measurements

- consider possible coordinate

systems

2) Determine the point (the radius)

around which the robot is turning.

VL

2d

VR

y

VL

2d

- consider possible coordinate

systems

2) Determine the point (the radius)

around which the robot is turning.

- to minimize wheel slippage, this

point (the ICC) must lie at the

intersection of the wheels axles

- each wheel must be traveling at

the same angular velocity

VR

ICC instantaneous center of

curvature

= angular velocity

y

VL

2d

VR

- consider possible coordinate

systems

2) Determine the point (the radius)

around which the robot is turning.

- to minimize wheel slippage, this

point (the ICC) must lie at the

intersection of the wheels axles

- each wheel must be traveling at

the same angular velocity around

the ICC

curvature

y

VL

x

2d

- consider possible coordinate

systems

2) Determine the point (the radius)

around which the robot is turning.

- each wheel must be traveling at

the same angular velocity around

the ICC

3) Determine the robots speed

around the ICC and its linear velocity

VR

ICC

R+d) = VL

R-d) = VR

y

VL

x

2d

VR

ICC

- consider possible coordinate

systems

2) Determine the point (the radius)

around which the robot is turning.

- each wheel must be traveling at

the same angular velocity around

the ICC

3) Determine the robots speed

around the ICC and then linear

velocity

ICC

R+d) = VL

R-d) = VR

Thus,

= ( VR - VL ) / 2d

R = 2d ( VR + VL ) / ( VR - VL )

y

VL

x

2d

VR

- consider possible coordinate

systems

2) Determine the point (the radius)

around which the robot is turning.

- each wheel must be traveling at

the same angular velocity around

the ICC

3) Determine the robots speed

around the ICC and then linear

velocity

ICC

R+d) = VL

R-d) = VR

Thus,

= ( VR - VL ) / 2d

R = 2d ( VR + VL ) / ( VR - VL )

V = R = ( VR + VL ) / 2

4) Integrate to obtain position

Vx = V(t) cos((t))

(t)

V(t)

Vy = V(t) sin((t))

(t)

VL

x

2d

VR

ICC

Vx

ICC

R(t)

with

= ( VR - VL ) / 2d

R = 2d ( VR + VL ) / ( VR - VL )

ICC ?

V = R = ( VR + VL ) / 2

4) Integrate to obtain position

Vx = V(t) cos((t))

(t)

Vy = V(t) sin((t))

Thus,

VL

x(t) =

x

2d

y(t) =

(t) =

VR

V(t) cos((t)) dt

V(t) sin((t)) dt

(t) dt

ICC

R(t)

with

= ( VR - VL ) / 2d

R = 2d ( VR + VL ) / ( VR - VL )

V = R = ( VR + VL ) / 2

Velocity Components

Vx = V(t) cos((t))

speed

Vy = V(t) sin((t))

(t)

Thus,

VL

x

2d

(t) =

VR

(t) dt

ICC

Kinematics

R(t)

with

= ( VR - VL ) / 2d

R = 2d ( VR + VL ) / ( VR - VL )

ICC ?

V = R = ( VR + VL ) / 2

Kinematics of

Synchro

drive

Nomad 200

Nomad 200

ICC at

all of the wheels are driven at the same speed

Vrobot = Vwheels

robot = wheels

velocity

x

Vwheels

(t) = (t) dt

position

Nomad 200

all of the wheels are driven at the same speed

Given the wheels velocities or positions,

what is the robots velocity/position ?

Are there any inherent system constraints?

1) Choose a robot coordinate system

2) Determine the point (the radius)

around

which the robot is

turning.

3) Determine the speed at which the

robot is

turning to obtain the

robot velocity.

4) Integrate to find position.

Lego Synchro

the wheels, but the RCX is stationary

also, four bump sensors and two motor

encoders are included

Inverse Kinematics

Key question:

y

velocity, what can we do to

achieve it?

VL (t)

VR(t)

starting position

final position

Inverse Kinematics

Key question:

y

velocity, what can we do to

achieve it?

VL (t)

VR(t)

starting position

final position

Inverse Kinematics

Key question:

y

velocity, what can we do to

achieve it?

VL (t)

VR(t)

starting position

final position

Inverse Kinematics

Key question:

y

velocity, what can we do to

achieve it?

x = V(t) cos((t)) dt

y = V(t) sin((t)) dt

VL (t)

= (t) dt

= ( VR - VL ) / 2d

V = R = ( VR + VL ) / 2

VR(t)

starting position

final position

Inverse Kinematics

Key question:

velocity, what can we do to

achieve it?

hard, but finding the best

solution is very difficult...

x

VL (t)

VR(t)

starting position

final position

quickest time

most energy

efficient

smoothest velocity

profiles

VL (t)

VL (t)

Inverse Kinematics

Usual approach: decompose the problem and control

only a few DOF at a time

Differential Drive

VL (t)

VR(t)

starting position

final position

Inverse Kinematics

Usual approach: decompose the problem and control

only a few DOF at a time

Differential Drive

(1) turn so that the wheels are

parallel to the line between the

original and final position of the

robot-Vorigin.

(t) = V (t) = V

VL (t)

VR(t)

starting position

final position

max

Inverse Kinematics

Usual approach: decompose the problem and control

only a few DOF at a time

Differential Drive

(1) turn so that the wheels are

parallel to the line between the

original and final position of the

robot-Vorigin.

(t) = V (t) = V

VR(t)

starting position

max

origin coincides with the

destination

VL (t)

final position

Inverse Kinematics

Usual approach: decompose the problem and control

only a few DOF at a time

Differential Drive

(1) turn so that the wheels are

parallel to the line between the

original and final position of the

robot-Vorigin.

(t) = V (t) = V

VR(t)

starting position

max

origin coincides with the

destination

VL (t)

final position

achieve the desired final

orientation

VL (t)

VR (t)

Usual approach: decompose the problem and control

only a few DOF at a time

Synchro Drive

parallel to the line between the

original and final position of the

robot origin.

(t) =

V(t)

max

origin coincides with the

destination

V(t) = Vmax

(t)

final position

starting position

achieve the desired final

orientation

(t) = max

tricycle drive

Ackerman drive

Doubly-steered bicycle

one more -- that roaming tatami mat

(holonomic) & the XR4000

back wheels tag along...

Mecos tricycle-drive

Four-wheel

Steering

The kinematic challenges of parallel parking:

wheels have limited turning angles

VFL

no in-place rotation

VFR

VBL

VBR

Ackerman Steering

L

VFL

VFR

g

VBL

d

VBR

x

r

IC

C

g

+d

tan(R)

g

sin(R)

VFR

determines

Ackerman Steering

L

VFL

VFR

g

VBL

g

+d

tan(R)

g

sin(R)

VFR

determines

fixed!

g

sin(L)

d

VBR

VFL

L = tan-1(g / (r + d))

x

r

(r - d) =

VBR

(r + d) =

VBL

IC

C

Applications

5 link trailer

2 controlled angles

nonholonomicity

All of the robots mentioned share an important

(if frustrating) property: they are

nonholonomic .

- makes it difficult to navigate between two arbitrary points

- need to resort to techniques like parallel parking

nonholonomicity

(if frustrating) property: they are nonholonomic.

- makes it difficult to navigate between two arbitrary points

- need to resort to techniques like parallel parking

change its pose instantaneously in all available directions.

i.e., the robots differential motion is constrained.

Synchro Drive

two DOF are freely

controllable; the

third is

inaccessible

Holonomic Robots

Navigation is simplified considerably if a robot can move

instantaneously in any direction, i.e., is holonomic.

Omniwheels

Mecanum wheels

Holonomic Robots

Nomad XR4000

Killoughs Platform

synchro drive with offsets

from the axis of rotation

Holonomic hype

Holonomic

Hype

platform, able to navigate in the

tightest of spaces

Holonomic Hype

Robot Manipulators

Is this robot holonomic ?

A robot holonomic if it

can move instantaneously in any direction.

Robot Manipulators

Is this robot holonomic ?

No - it cant move at all

Yes - its end effector (a point) can translate

instantaneously in the x or y directions

Maybe - actually, in some cases the

end effector is constrained...

Robot

Manipulators

Robot

Manipulators

Is this robot holonomic ?

No - it cant move at all

Yes - its end effector (a point) can translate

instantaneously in the x or y directions

Maybe - actually, in some cases the

end effector is constrained...

Joint

Angles

Kinematics

Useful

Tasks

Robot Manipulators

Forward kinematics -- finding Cartesian coordinates from joint angles

start by finding the position relationships, then velocity

Inverse Kinematics

Inverse kinematics -- finding joint angles from Cartesian coordinates

Types of Manipulators

Basic distinction: what kinds of joints extend from base to end.

RR or 2R

PR arm

chains of P (prismatic) and R (rotational)

joints.

Prismatic Joints

Ninja

Ambler

tomato

harvester

Challenges

1. Modeling many degrees of freedom

2. No closed-form solution guaranteed for the inverse

kinematics.

3. Trajectory generation under nonholonomic constraints

4. Navigating with obstacles

obstacle

go

al

Challenges

Multiple solutions (or no solutions) for a task.

Challenges

Multiple solutions (or no solutions) for a task.

Opportunities

Direct kinematic/ inverse kinematic

modeling - is the basis for

control of the vast majority of industrial

robots.

Accurate (inverse) kinematic models are

required in order to create believable

character animations

things bike?

Configuration Space

To get from place A to place B, we need a

standardized notion of place :

Configuration Space is a space representing robot pose.

The dimensionality of C.S. is equal to the robots degrees of freedom.

Examples:

The Nomad robot (discounting orientation) has a planar

configuration space representing the (x,y) coordinates of the robots

center.

The Nomad robot including orientation

The 2R manipulator depicted earlier ...

topological

properties

To be discussed:

Impinging on robots space:

robot navigation via path planning

full-knowledge techniques

insect-inspired algorithms

Perspective

If your robot doesnt do what you want ...

Dynamics

of a one link arm

what acceleration results from a particular given torque.

Control Techniques

P, PD, PID

We will illustrate

Impedance control

force and position

robust,

sliding mode,

nonlinear etc.,

neural network based,

fuzzy logic based

etc.

PD Control of a One-Link

Arm

solution

Manipulators are well studied

Lots of hard problems (weve barely

scratched the surface)

Modern techniques involve trying to use:

some of the kinematics

some of the dynamics of manipulators

sophisticated control theory

some learning

Planning

1 very little

freedom

c1

c2

c1

c2

roboticists!

This is a challenging area of robotics.

We will cover it briefly in several lectures next quarter

Joints connect parts of manipulators.

The most common joint types are:

rotary (rotation around a fixed axis)

prismatic (linear movement)

planned carefully - kicking a ball in hexapod soccer?

Robot manipulators can have one or more of each of

those joints.

Now recall that any free body has 6 DOF;

that means in order to get the robot's end effector to an

arbitrary position and orientation,

the robot requires a minimum of 6 joints.

hand!) has 7 DOF.

That is sufficient for reaching any point with the hand,

It is also redundant, meaning that there are multiple ways

in which any point can be reached.

This is good news and bad news;

the fact that there are multiple solutions means that there is a

larger space to search through to find the best solution.

They can be:

simple pointers (i.e., a stick),

simple 2D grippers,

screwdrivers for attaching tools (like welding guns, sprayer, etc.),

or can be as complex as the human hand,

hand with variable numbers

of fingers and joints in the fingers.

Food for thought: how many DOF are there in the

human hand?

Problems like reaching and grasping in manipulation

constitute entire subareas of robotics and AI.

Issues include:

finding grasp-points (centers of gravity - COG, friction, etc.);

force/strength of grasp;

compliance (e.g., in sliding, maintaining contact with a surface);

dynamic tasks (e.g., juggling, catching).

Advanced Manipulation

Other types of manipulation researched:

carefully controlling force, as in grasping fragile objects

and maintaining contact with a surface (so-called

compliant motion).

juggling,

throwing,

catching, etc.,

are already being demonstrated on robot arms.

Problems to solve.

1. Draw kinematics models of various animals and calculate

the total DOFs.

2. Give examples (drawings) of holonomic, non-holonomic

and redundant mobile robots that you can build using

standard components that you can find in the lab.

3. Compare the kinematics of differential drive, the synchro

drive and the four wheel steering.

4. Give examples (drawings) of holonomic, non-holonomic

and redundant robot arms that you can build using standard

components that you can find in the lab.

Next Time(s)

Inverse kinematics: what we would really like to know ...

robot navigation via path planning

full-knowledge techniques and insect-inspired algorithms

Sources

Dr. Fred Martin

Bryce Tucker and former PSU students

A. Ferworn,

Prof. Gaurav Sukhatme, USC Robotics Research Laboratory

Paul Hannah

Dodds, Harvey Mudd College

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