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Lt Cdr Ong Khye Liat RMN 10 Feb 2010
All the criteria are identical to standard transformer having a turns ratio, a.
Conventional Transformer Connected as an Autotransformer
The following rules apply : Current in any winding should not exceed its nominal current rating. Winding voltage should not exceed its nominal voltage rating. Ampere-turns of the both windings are equal.
Same mutual flux links both windings. If current in winding flows from H1 to H2, the current in other winding must flow from X2 to X1 and vice versa. The voltages add when terminals of opposite polarity are connected together. The voltages subtract when H1 and X1 are connected together.
Voltage Transformer (VT)
Also called potential transformer which used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits.
They are designed to present negligible burden to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. The nominal secondary voltage is usually rated for 69 V or 120 V at rated primary voltage.
VT are used to measure or monitor the transmission lines and to isolate the metering equipment from the main lines. 1 terminal of the secondary winding is always grounded and the distributed capacitance between windings makes the winding to be isolated.
Similar construction with conventional transformer but great insulation between winding to withstand HV. Basic Impulse Insulation (BIL) expresses the transformer's ability to withstand lightning and switching surges.
Current Transformer (CT)
CT is a measurement device designed to provide a current in its secondary coil proportional to the current flowing in its primary. CT are commonly used in metering and protective relaying in the electrical power industry where they facilitate the safe measurement of large currents, often in the presence of high voltages.
The highly accurate current ratio and small phase angle are achieved by keeping the exciting current small. The CT safely isolates measurement and control circuitry from the high voltages typically present on the circuit being measured. The nominal secondary current is usually 5A, irrespective of primary current.
The insulation between winding must be great to withstand the full line-neutral voltage, including line surges and one of the secondary terminal is grounded.
Care must be taken that the secondary winding is not disconnected from its burden while current flows in the primary, as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary and may permanently affect the accuracy of the transformer. For safety reasons, we must first shortcircuit the secondary winding than remove the component.
The primary is a single conductor that simply passes through the center or less center of the ring. If the secondary possesses N turns the transformer ratio is N. This transformer is simple and inexpensive and widely used in LV and MV indoor installation.
VT & CT Installation
END OF PART 8