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# CHAPTER 5 TRANSMISSION LINE By Nur Diyana Kamarudin

Transmission lines are considered to be impedance matching circuits designed to deliver power (RF) from the transmitter to the antenna and maximum signal from the antenna to the receiver. Nowadays, the transmission line is made of parallel-wire (unbalanced) line and coaxial (unbalanced) line. It consists of 2-wire line since transmission line for transverse electromagnetic TEM wave propagation always have 2 conductors. The characteristic of Transmission Line are determined by its electrical properties : 16 March 2010 Conductivity & Insulator Dielectric Constant

Fundamentals of Transmission Lines

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Fundamentals

The parallel-wire line is employed where balanced properties are required: for instance: in connecting a folded-dipole antenna to a TV receiver. The coaxial line is used when unbalanced properties are needed as in the interconnection of a broadcast transmitter to its grounded antenna. It is also employed at UHF and microwave frequencies to avoid the risk of radiation from the transmission line itself. Parallel lines are never used in microwaves whereas coaxial lines may be employed for frequencies up to at least 18GHz. 16 March 2010

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**Types of Transmission Lines
**

Parallel line Coaxial Cable Open-Wire Twin-Lead

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Types of Transmission lines

Open-wire

Twin lead

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**Types of transmission lines
**

Unshielded twisted-pair

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**Types of transmission lines
**

Coaxial cable

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**Ideal Transmission Line
**

No losses ± conductors have zero resistance ± dielectric has zero conductance ± possible only with superconductors ± approximated by a short line No capacitance or inductance ± possible with a real line only at dc ± with low frequencies and short lines this can be approximated

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The electrical properties determine the PRIMARY electrical constant: Series Resistance, R Series Inductance, L Shunt Capacitance, C Shunt Conductance, G The combined above parameter is called LUMPED PARAMETERS. The transmission line characteristic is called SECONDARY CONSTANT. The secondary constants are: 1. Characteristic Impedance 2. Propagation constant

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Two-wire parallel transmission line electrical equivalent circuit

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Characteristic Impedance

The characteristic Impedance, Zo is defined as : A transmission line must be terminated at purely resistive load for maximum power transfer. Zo = Zo = Zo =

( R jwL) / (G jwC )

R/G

L/C

for Low Frequencies for high Frequencies

The conductance between 2 wires are determined by the shunt leakage resistance, Rs The load impedance, ZL must match with characteristic impedance, ZO

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**The characteristic impedance can be calculated by using Ohm¶s Law: Zo = Eo / Io
**

where Eo is source voltage and Io is transmission line current

The characteristic impedance also can be calculated by its physical dimension:

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**Two wire parallel Transmission lines
**

Two-wire parallel transmission line

I ! I rI 0

c! 1 Q oI 0

D Z 0 ! 276 log r 1 vp Q oI

Z0 = the characteristic impedance (ohms) D = the distance between the centers = 2s r = the radius of the conductor I0 = the permittivity of free space (F/m) Ir = the relative permittivity or dielectric constant of the medium (unitless) Q0 = the permeability of free space (H/m)

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**Coaxial Cable transmission lines
**

Coaxial cable

I ! I rI 0

c! 1 Q oI 0

138 D Z0 log d Ir 1 vp Q oI

Z0 = the characteristic impedance (ohms) D = the diameter of the outer conductor d = the diameter of the inner conductor I = the permittivity of the material Ir = the relative permittivity or dielectric constant of the medium or insulators =¥k Q0 = the permeability of free space

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EXAMPLE 1 : Determine the characteristic impedance of the coaxial cable with L= 0.118 uH/ft and C = 21 pF/ft. Solution : Zo =

L / C = 75 ;

-see also example 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3 given in handouts.

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**Losses in Transmission Lines
**

Conductor Losses

Increases with frequency due to skin effect Conductor heating or I2R loss-proportional to current and inversely proportional to characteristic impedance.

** Dielectric Heating Losses
**

Also increases with frequency

Radiation

Losses

** Not significant with good quality coax properly installed Can be a problem with openwire cable
**

Coupling

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Losses

Skin effect

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Corona

Transmission Lines Losses

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Velocity factor

The velocity of light and all other electromagnetic waves depends on the medium through which they travel. It is nearly 3 x 108 m/s in a vacuum and slower in all other media. The velocity of light in a medium is given by v = vc / ¥k where v = velocity in the medium vc = velocity of light in a vacuum k = dielectric constant of the medium ( 1 for vacuum and very nearly 1 for air)

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Velocity factor

The velocity factor of a dielectric substance and thus of a cable is the velocity reduction ratio and is therefore given by vf = 1/¥k The dielectric constants of materials commonly used in transmission lines range from about 1.2 to 2.8, giving corresponding velocity factors from 0.9 to 0.6.

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Reflection Coefficients

It is a vector quantity that represents the ratio of reflected voltages to incident voltage or reflected current incident current. Refer to figure 12.19 for the figure of incidence wave and reflected wave. It is defined as : + = (z ± 1) / (z + 1) z is a normalized impedance It can also be written in term of reflected voltage or current and incident voltage/current.

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Reflection Coefficient

+

+ Vi Vr Ii Ir

Vr Ir or Vi Ii

= reflection coefficient = incident voltage = reflected voltage = incident current = reflected current

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Reflection of Pulses

Transmission Line Z0 ZL

Vi Vr ! ! Z0 Ii I r

**total voltage ! Vi Vr total current ! I i
**

i r

Ir

Ii I r +@

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! ZL

r i

Ir or Ii

Z L Z0 +! Z L Z0

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Reflection Coefficient

More complex situation: Load has an arbitrary impedance ± not equal to Z0 ± not shorted or open ± impedance may be complex (either capacitive or inductive as well as resistive) Method needed to calculate reflected voltage in these cases

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**Wave Propagation on Lines
**

Start by assuming a matched line Waves move down the line at propagation velocity Waves are the same at all points except for phase Phase changes 360 degrees in the distance a wave travels in one period This distance is called the wavelength

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Incident and Reflected Waves

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Standing Waves

When an incident wave reflects from a mismatched load (Z0 ZL), an interference pattern develops Both incident and reflected waves move at the propagation velocity, but the interference pattern is stationary The interference pattern is called a set of standing waves

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Standing Waves

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**Standing-Wave Ratio
**

When line is mismatched but neither open nor shorted, voltage varies along line without ever falling to zero Greater mismatch leads to greater variation Voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR or SWR) is defined as a ratio of the maximum voltage/current to the minimum voltage/current of a standing wave of the transmission line often called Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)

**Vmax SWR ! Vmin
**

http://www.bessernet.com/Ereflecto/tutorialFrameset.htm

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Standing waves

Vmax SWR ! Vmin

Vmax ! Ei Er ! Ei + Ei

Vmin ! Ei Er ! Ei + Ei

Z0 ZL SWR ! or ! Z0 1 + ZL

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1 +

**Standing Wave Ratio (SWR)
**

SWR 1 + ! SWR 1 Z L Z0 +! Z L Z0

If there is no reflected wave or signals, then SWR will be equal to 1 where Zo = ZL If the load is purely resistive, then the SWR will be: SWR = Zo / ZL

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**Effects of High SWR
**

High SWR causes voltage peaks on the line that can damage the line or connected equipment such as a transmitter Current peaks due to high SWR cause losses to increase

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Impedance inversion by quarter-wavelength Zs s/D Zo ZL

Quarter and half wavelength lines

Consider figure above which shows a load of impedance ZL connected to a piece of transmission line of length s and having Zo as its characteristic impedance. Zs = Zo2/ ZL (reflective impedance)

** If the impedances are normalized with respect to Zo, we have
**

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Zs/Zo = Zo/ZL

Where

Zs/Zo = zs and ZL/Zo = zL we know that zs = 1/ zL = yL where yL is the normalized admittance of the load. this equation states that if a quarter-wave length line is connected to an impedance, then the normalized input impedance of this line is equal to the normalized load admittance.

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**Quarter-Wave Transformer and impedance matching
**

It used to match transmission line to the purely resistive load in order to find the shortest distance to the load (in term of P). Refer to figure 12-31 for the diagram of the Quarter-wave transformer. At quarter-wavelength (P/4), the characteristic impedance of the transmission line will be defined as: Zo¶ = Z oZ L

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**Quarter-Wave Transformer and impedance matching
**

Condition of Quarter-Wave Transformer: 1. RL = Zo Acts as Transformer for ratio of 1:1 2. RL > Zo Acts as Step down Transformer 3. RL < Zo Acts as Step up Transformer A quarter-wave Transformer is simply one quarter (P/4) long of the transmission line length.

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**Quarter-Wave Transformer and impedance matching
**

EXAMPLE: Determine the physical length and new characteristic impedance for the transmission line of 50; RG-8A/U. Use Quarter-Wave Transformer to match the 150; load impedance where the source frequency is 150 MHz and velocity factor of 1.

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**SOLUTION : 1. Physical Length: ¼ P = ¼ (c/f) = ¼ (3 x108 / 150 x 106) = 0.5m 2. The characteristic impedance is: Zo¶ = sqrt [(50)(150)] = 86.6 ;
**

- See also handout given as another example.

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**Reactance properties of TL: Stubs
**

It is used to remove the reactive parts of the transmission line in order to obtain the maximum energy transferred to the load since purely inductive or capacitive load absorbs no energy. In order to implement it, a piece of transmission line is placed across the primary line as close to the load as possible.

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**Reactance properties of TL : Stubs
**

Procedure for Stub Matching is defined below: 1. Calculate the load admittance 2. Calculate stub susceptance 3. Connect stub to the load, the resulting admittance being the load conductance G. 4. Transform conductance to resistance, and calculate Zo¶ of the quarter-wave transformer as before.

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EXERCISE : A (200 + j75) load is to be matched to a 300 line to give SWR = 1. Calculate: 1. Reactance of the stub 2. the characteristic impedance of the quarterwave transformer, both connected directly to the load. - See the solution as given in the handouts.

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We need to model the transmission line due to the following reasons: Propagation Line (Phase Shift) Reflected Signals or Waves Power Loss Dispersion

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Smith Chart

Smith Chart is a tool used to determine the matched IMPEDANCE or ADMITTANCE for the lossless transmission line. Smith Chart consists of the following: The outer section of the Smith Chart is refer to the distance of wavelength towards generator (source) and load. Clockwise rotation movement towards generator Counterclockwise rotation movement towards load The scale for the wavelength is from 0 => 0.5P

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The body of Smith Chart consists of the following: Body of smith chart is made of families of orthogonal circles (intersect at right angles). The impedance or admittance at any point on the line can be plotted by find the intersection of the real component (resistance or conductance) indicated in the along horizontal axis with the imaginary component (reactance or susceptance). Counterclockwise rotation movement towards load

**The scale for the wavelength is from 0 => 0.5P
**

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The top half of the smith chart is referring to the positive Inductive Reactance (jX/Zo) & Capacitive Susceptance (jB/Yo). The bottom half of the smith chart is referring to the negative Capacitive reactance (-jX/Zo) & Inductive Susceptance (-jB/Yo) The center of the Smith Chart is referring to the real component, Resistance (R/Zo) and Conductance (G/Yo).

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Smith Chart (Simple diagram)

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The impedance & admittance value in the Smith Chart is often expressed in term of normalized, = Z / Zo EXAMPLE 2 : Plot the impedance of 100 + j25 ; on a 50 ; line. Solution : 1. Normalized the impedance by: z = (100 + j25) / 50 = 2 + j0.5 2. Use Smith Chart to plot the normalize impedance. 3. Since the value of impedance is positive, find the point of the plot on the upper side of smith chart and find the value of resistance (2) and reactance (0.5) and then draw the circle. 4. The radius of the circle is called SWR (Standing Wave Ratio) of the line.

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EXERCISE 1:

Plot the following impedance in the smith chart if the characteristic impedance is 50 ;. i) 50 + j75 ; ii) 150 + j75 ;

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EXAMPLE 3 : Determine the input impedance and SWR for the 1.25P long transmission line where the characteristic impedance, Zo = 50 ; and load impedance, ZL= 30 + j40;.

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SOLUTION FOR EXAMPLE 3: 1. Find the normalized impedance, z = (30 + j40)/50 = 0.6 + j0.8 2. Plot the normalized impedance and determine the SWR. SWR = 2.9 3. Find the wavelength from normalized impedance and rotate it by 1.25P the distance required is 0.37P. draw the intersection line to determine the input impedance, Zin = (0.63 ± j0.77)x50 = 31.5 ± j38.5

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EXAMPLE 4 : Quaterwave Transformer Matching A load impedance, ZL = 75 + j50; to match the 50; source with a quarter-wave transformer.

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SOLUTION FOR EXAMPLE 4: 1. Find the normalized impedance, z = (75 + j50)/50 = 1.5 + j1 2. Plot the normalized impedance and determine the SWR. SWR = 2.4 labeled as point C 3. Label it as point A and then extend the line to determine the distance from the load: 0.192P labeled as point B

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4. At point C, the distance is 0.250P thus, the distance from point C to B is 0.250P - 0.192P => 0.058P It is a Quarter-wave Tranformer 5. Thus, the input impedance is determined from its SWR, Zin = SWR = (2.4)x50 = 120 ; 6. The Characteristic Impedance from QuarterWave Transformer : Zo¶ = sqrt(Zo Zin) = sqrt (50x120) = 77.5 ;

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EXERCISE 2: Determine the SWR, Characteristic of Quarter-Wave Transformer and the distance to match the 75 ; transmission line to the load impedance of 25-j50 ;.

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