Latin for “poison”

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We have all gotten viruses…
from bacteria, plants to animals. Viruses cause colds, flu, warts and diseases such as measles, AIDS and cancer.

BUT not all viruses cause diseases, AND not all viruses are harmful to humans.
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WHAT IS A VIRUS?

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A VIRUS is a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA), enclosed by a protein coat called a CAPSID.

DNA

CAPSID

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Why are some viruses harmful?
Virus invades cell
When your cells make viruses instead of operating normally, YOU get sick

Virus forces cell to make copies of virus

Eventually so many copies are made, the cell explodes, releasing all of the new viruses

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Examples of some viral diseases:
DISEASE AIDS Wart VIRUSES HIV Herpes Simplex Virus Flu Measles Cancer Influenza Morbillivirus Hepatitis B
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.

Who do viruses infect?
Viruses usually infect a specific host including:

Viruses infect Bacteria Viruses infect Plants

• These viruses are called bacteriophages • One example is the Tobacco Mosaic Virus • One example is the common cold

Viruses infect Animals

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Defining Properties of Viruses
Viruses are parasites that invade cells Viruses have either DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) or RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) Viruses direct the synthesis of new virus within a host cell. Newly made viruses infect other cells.

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How small is a virus?

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Comparative Sizes of Bacteria & Viruses

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Size: 20 to 14,000 nm in length
1 nm = 0.00000004 inches If a cell was the size of your classroom, then an average virus would be the size of a softball.

atom proteins

viruses

bacteria

animal cells
10-5 m

0m
10-7 m 10-8 m 10-9 m 10-10 m Virus

10-6 m

Go five more feet!

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Structure

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Structure
Nucleic acid
• DNA or RNA • Single-stranded or double-stranded • Linear or circular

Capsid
• • • •
Protects virus from the environment Serves as a vehicle of transmission & basis for classification Accounts for the mass of a virus Made up of capsomeres

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Structure
Envelope
• Consists of lipids, proteins & carbohydrates • May or may not be covered with spikes

Spikes
• Carbohydrate-protein complexes that project from the surface of the envelope • Means of host cell attachment • Project from capsids in naked viruses
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Morphological Types
Based on capsid architecture Classified with the aid of electron microscope & x-ray crystallography Types:
• • • •
Helical Polyhedral Enveloped Complex
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Helical Viruses
Resemble long rods Rigid or flexible Nucleic acid found within a hollow, cylindrical capsid that has a helical structure Example: tobacco mosaic virus, bacteriophage M13

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Helical Viruses

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Helical Capsids
Helical capsids are rodlike structures with the RNA in the center of the helix. A helix is made by stacking repeating units in a spiral.

RNA

protein coat
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Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) is an example of a virus with a helical structure. Protein subunits wrap around the spiraling RNA strand.

Tobacco Mosaic Virus

This image taken using an Electron Microscope
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Polyhedral Viruses
Many-sided Capsid shape: icosahedron (20 equilateral triangular faces & 12 corners) Examples: adenovirus, poliovirus

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Icosahedral Capsids
Some viral protein subunits assemble to make polyhedral (many sided) structures. The most common structure is the icosahedron. An icosahedron has 20 triangular faces and has 2-fold, 3-fold and 5-fold symmetry axes.

A body with cubic symmetry possesses a number of axes about which it may be rotated to give a number of identical appearances.

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Icosahedral Capsids
The DNA or RNA is found in the center or the core of the capsid. The occurrence of icosahedral features in quite unrelated viruses suggests that icosahedral symmetry is preferred in virus structure.
DNA Capsid (Protein Coat)

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Images of Icosahedral Viruses

Actual images of several different icosahedral viruses.

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Enveloped Viruses
Roughly spherical When helical or polyhedral viruses are enclosed by envelopes, they are called enveloped helical or polyhedral viruses Examples:
• Enveloped helical: influenza virus • Enveloped polyhedral: herpes simplex virus
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Enveloped Viruses
Enveloped viruses are viruses which have a membrane coat surrounding the protein coat or capsid. These viruses are common in animal viruses, but are uncommon in plant viruses. Herpes Simplex Virus. A membrane (made of proteins) surrounds the capsid (also made of proteins) which surrounds the viral DNA.
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Complex Viruses
Complicated structures Example: bacteriophage, poxviruses

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Bacteriophage is a virus that infects bacteria.

Bacteriophage

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Taxonomy
Viral species: A group of viruses sharing the same genetic information and ecological niche (host) Family names end in –viridae Genus names end in -virus Common names are used for species Subspecies are designated by a number
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Taxonomy
Based on:
• Nucleic acid type (e.g. Hepadnaviridae, Picornaviridae) • Morphology • Presence/absence of an envelope • Disease it cause (e.g. Poxviridae)

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Examples
Virus Family Coronaviridae Poxviridae Herpesviridae Papoviridae Hepadnaviridae SARS Smallpox, Cowpox Chickenpox Warts, Tumors Hepatitis B
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Disease

Identification of Viruses
Cytopathic effects Serological tests
• Detect antibodies against viruses in a patient • Use antibodies to identify viruses in neutralization tests, viral hemagglutination, and Western blot

Nucleic acids
• Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) • DNA fingerprints • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
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How do viruses replicate?

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Replication Phases
I, II, III - Viruses enter cell
Attachment to cell membrane Penetration inside cell Losing virus protein coat

Phase I

IV - Replication
Tricks cell into making more viral DNA Tricks cell into making viral protein coat

V - Release
Assembly of virus DNA and protein coat into whole new viruses Leaving the cell

Phase II

-

Phase III

Phase IV

Phase V

http://www.cat.cc.md.us/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit2/viruses/adlyt.html Virus

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Viral Multiplication
Invasion of host cell is necessary Types of bacteriophage multiplication
• Lytic cycle - ends with the lysis & death of host cell • Lysogenic cycle - host cell remains alive; prophage DNA incorporated in host DNA

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Lytic cycle of a T-even bacteriophage
Bacterial cell wall Bacterial chromosome Capsid DNA Capsid

1
Attachment: Phage attaches to host cell.

Sheath Tail fiber Base plate Pin Cell wall Tail

Plasma membrane

2
Penetration: Phage pnetrates host cell and injects its DNA.

Sheath contracted

3
Merozoites released into bloodsteam from liver may infect new red blood cells

Tail core

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Lytic cycle of a T-even bacteriophage
Tail DNA

4 Maturation:

Viral components are assembled into virions.

Capsid

5 Release:

Host cell lyses and new virions are released.

Tail fibers

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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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The Lysogenic Cycle

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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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3 Important Results of Lysogeny
 Lysogenic

cells are immune to reinfection by the same phage  Host cell may exhibit new properties  Specialized transduction
Process of transferring a piece of cell DNA adjacent to a prophage to another cell

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Specialized Transduction
Prophage gal gene Bacterial DNA

1 Prophage exists in galactose-using host (containing the gal gene).
Galactose-positive donor cell gal gene

2

Phage genome excises, carrying with it the adjacent gal gene from the host.

gal gene

3 Phage matures and cell lyses, releasing phage carrying gal gene.

4 Phage infects a cell that cannot utilize galactose (lacking gal gene).
Galactose-negative recipient cell

5 Along with the prophage, the bacterial gal gene becomes integrated into the new host’s DNA. 6 Lysogenic cell can now metabolize galactose. Virus

Galactose-positive recombinant cell
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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Multiplication of Animal Viruses
Follows basic pattern of bacteriophage multiplication but with notable differences
• • • • •
Mechanism of entering the host cell Synthesis & assembly of new viral components Presence of certain types of enzymes Mechanisms of maturation & release Effects on the host cell
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Multiplication of Animal Viruses
Attachment Penetration Uncoating Attaches to cell membrane By endocytosis or fusion By viral or host enzymes

Biosynthesis Production of nucleic acid & proteins Maturation Release Nucleic acid & capsid proteins assemble By budding (enveloped viruses) or rupture
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Stage

Bacteriophage Vs. Viral Multiplication
Bacteriophage Animal Viruses Tail fibers attach to cell Attachment sites are plasma wall proteins membrane proteins & glycoproteins Viral DNA injected into Capsid enters by endocytosis or host cell fusion Not required In cytoplasm Lysogeny Host cell lysed
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Attachment

Penetration Uncoating Biosynthesis Chronic infection Release

Enzymatic removal of capsid proteins In nucleus (DNA viruses) or cytoplasm (RNA viruses) Latency; slow viral infections; cancer Enveloped viruses bud out; nonenveloped viruses rupture plasma membrane 42

Inhibition of Virus
Phagocytosis Neutralization by antibodies Interaction with T-lymphocytes Drugs Vaccines

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Inactivation of Viruses
Physical agents – heat, UV light, X-rays Chemical agents – halogen (chlorine & iodine), heavy metals (Hg, Ag, phenol derivatives), formaldehyde, & lipid solvents (ether, chloroform, detergents)

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Virus & Cancer
Excess tissue develops into a tumor
• Malignant – cancerous • Benign – non-cancerous

Named by the attachment of the suffix –oma to the name of the tissue from which the tumor arises
• Sarcoma – cancer of the connective tissue • Adenocarcinoma – cancer of glandular epithelial tissue

Oncovirus – cause cancer
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Cancer Cells
Undergo mitosis more rapidly Stick together less firmly Undergo dedifferentiation Fail to exhibit contact inhibition Do not adhere to one another Overgrow to one another Metastasize – spread to different body parts
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How Cancer Bring Illness
Interrupts normal functions Robs the body of vital nutrients Produces hormones & overloads the body with chemical regulators Block air passageways

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Carcinogens
Cancer-causing substances Radiation (UV light & X-ray) Hydrocarbons – cigarette smoke, asbestos, nickel, certain pesticides, dyes & environmental pollutants

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Prions
Proteinaceous infectious particles Inherited and transmissible by ingestion, transplant, & surgical instruments Spongiform encephalopathies: mad cow disease, kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, Sheep scrapie
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The concept of a virus as an organism challenges the way we define life:

* * * *

Viruses do not breathe. Viruses do not metabolize. Viruses do not grow. However, they do reproduce.

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Are Viruses Living?
Properties of Living Organisms Breathes (respires) Metabolizes Grows Reproduces Properties of Viruses Doesn’t breathe Doesn’t metabolize Doesn’t grow Reproduces

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Techniques to Study Viruses
X-ray Crytallography – Xrays are directed at a sample. How those rays scatter can be used to determine the structure of that sample

Atomic Force Microscope – A tiny tip probes a surface, from which the shape of the surface can be determined
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Filters – Very small holes in material filter only viruses through

Sedimentary Centrifugation – A sample is spun so fast, different elements in it are separated by density

Electron Microscope – Electrons are smaller than light wavelengths, so viruses can be “seen” by reflecting electrons off of them
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Viruses Can Help Cells, Too
- Since viruses can transport DNA and RNA into cells, scientists are exploring Gene Therapy - In Gene Therapy, viral genetic material is replaced with new DNA - In time, this could be used to cure genetic diseases. Currently we have no cure for these types of illnesses
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