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Sales Training BR 7.

0
July 2003

Features: GPRS and EGPRS

Support of CS-3 and CS-4


Present situation
CS-1 or CS-2 available
Gross Data Rate / Slot
CS-1: 9,05 (kbit/s)
CS2: 13.2 (kbit(s)

Siemens, 2003

Support of CS-3 and CS-4


Feature Content
Support of all coding schemes (CS1-CS4)
Enabling per cell
New Gross Data Rates:
CS-3: 15.6 kbit/s
CS-4: 21.4 kbit/s
Requires more than one 16 kbit/s time slot on Abis
requires BSC-upgrade (PPXX board)
dynamic Abis-Feature
also applicable for BTS 1

Siemens, 2003

Support of CS-3 and CS-4


Radio TS with CS3, CS4 requires 2 Abis Subslot at 16 kbit/s
CS3, CS4 enabling requires new concatenated PCU frames
CS2, CS3, CS4 using concatenated PCU frames requires 2 Abis subslots

Coding
Schemes

nr <16kbit Abis TS> nr <16kbit Abis TS>


No CS3/4 enabled
CS3/4 enabled

Gross Data rate / slot

CS 1

9.05 kbit/s

CS 2

13.4 kbit/s

CS 3

15.6 kbit/s

CS 4

21.4 kbit/s

2
2

Siemens, 2003

Support of CS-3 and CS-4


Operator Benefit
High data throughput per channel
Completion of the GPRS functionality
Optimized usage of radio resources

1 timeslot instead of 2 needed


Siemens, 2003

Support of CS-3 and CS-4


User Benefit
New multimedia applications will make mobile data more
attractive
Improved performance for the end user (up to 60%)

Siemens, 2003

Multiplexing of GPRS and EGPRS on the same TS


Present Situation
GPRS and EGPRS users cannot be multiplexed on the same
TS

Feature Content
GPRS and E-GPRS can be multiplexed on the same TS by
using USF
Each mobile has to decode the UL state flag
the network must use GMSK
(i.e standard GPRS or MCS-1 to MCS-4)

Siemens, 2003

Multiplexing of GPRS and EGPRS on the same TS

EDGE
GPRS

Customer benefit
no separate resources for GPRS and E-GPRS are required
reduce complexity in network planning activities

Siemens, 2003

EDGE Capacity Simulations:


Performance depends on:
PDCHs on BCCH-TRX or non-BCCH-TRX (10-95% Load)
Frequency Reuse Planning of the TRX / Frequency Hopping System
Traffic Model and Packet Call Volumes
MS Performance, e.g. Multislot Class, Receiver Performance
Link Adaptation / Incremental Redundancy Performance
BSS especially PDCH Load (Multiplexing)
TCP / IP effects like slow start, etc.
MS Receiver Performance and Incremental Redundancy Memory

Siemens, 2003

EDGE: Application Throughput over TCP/IP


depending on Data Volume

Throughput in kbps

FTP/HTTP Download Performance over TCP/IP for GPRS and EDGE (good Radio Conditions)
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

> 200kbps with


EDGE 4 TS MS

110kbps with
EDGE 2 TS MS

75kbps with
GPRS 4 TS MS
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

File Size in kByte


GPRS CS1-4, 4 TS MS, WS = 12 * 1460 Byte

EDGE MCS1-9, 2 TS MS, WS = 12 * 1460 Byte

EDGE MCS1-9, 4 TS MS, WS = 25 * 1460 Byte

EDGE 2 TS MS offers 40% more throughput than GPRS 4 TS MS


utilizing only of the Radio Resources !
Siemens, 2003

2000

Link Adaptation

Previous situation
Fixed Coding Scheme

Not changeable within a call

CS-1 or CS-2 available

Siemens, 2003

Link Adaptation
EDGE (Enhanced Data Rate for GSM Evolution) and CS3/CS4
provide high speed mobile radio access
9 Modulation Coding Scheme (MSC1 to MSC9) for EDGE
most protected MCSs have low index (e.g., MCS1 data rate 8.8)
less protected MCSs have high index (e.g., MCS9 data rate 59.2)
RLC layer operation modes
acknowledged (with retransmission)
no acknowledged (without retransmission)

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Siemens, 2003

Link Adaptation

Feature Content
According to the radio quality:

Dynamic selection of the coding scheme


Envelope
down and upgrading procedures are supported at the beginning
and during TBF

Radio quality derived from BLER

retransmitted blocks
BLER is the percentage of RLC blocks received with errors
Selection of MCS is done up/downlink by BSS

Siemens, 2003

Link Adaptation
Algorithm approaches envelope
LA algorithm
approaches
Envelope
20kbps / TS
@ < 15dB C/I

Siemens, 2003

Link Adaptation
Coding Families
Family A

Family A
padding

Family B

Family C

MCS-3
37 octets

37 octets

37 octets

37 octets

MCS-6
MCS-9

MCS-3
34+3 octets

34+3 octets

MCS-6
34 octets
34 octets
MCS-2
28 octets

34 octets

34 octets

MCS-8
28 octets

28 octets

28 octets

MCS-5
MCS-1
22 octets

MCS-7
22 octets

MCS-4
Siemens, 2003

Link Adaptation
Note

Retransmission is performed in the same


family,
but LA is not restricted within a family

Siemens, 2003

Link Adaptation
Switching points example CS1/CS2

Hysteresis for switching points


Avoid unstable system
25

20

CS2
15

Gross
Throughput
[kBit/s]

10

CS1

-5
-20

-10

10

20

30

40

- = +

C/I [dB]
BLER
Siemens, 2003

Link Adaptation
Parameters

Enable families of MCSs


also 8PSK / GMSK
MCS1 is mandatory to transport signalling so it
must be always supported and needed if Abis is
congested

Initial CS
Enable/Disable LA

Siemens, 2003

Link Adaptation
Prerequisite

BSC/72 introduced within BR 6.0


Inter-Working
Flexible Abis
Changing the coding scheme =>
Abis channels may be added / removed

Siemens, 2003

Link Adaptation

Customer Benefit
Improved data throughput
Optimum usage of the air interface
The coding scheme must not be chosen to the
worst situation in the cell (e.g C/I at cell border)
Improved quality of service for the end user

Siemens, 2003

Network Controlled Cell Reselection

Present Situation
Only MS controlled cell reselection
Mobiles are not distributed to cells due to traffic

congestion of data traffic not considered

Siemens, 2003

Network Controlled Cell Reselection

Feature Content
Redistribution of MSs among the network (same PCU)
PCU

....

congestion

Cell change

Siemens, 2003

Network Controlled Cell Reselection

Network controlled Cell Reselection - NCCR


Packet Switched Services

NCCR due to coverage

NCCR due to traffic

Siemens, 2003

Network Controlled Cell Reselection


Network Control Order (NCO)
MS in idle sate

NCO has the value NC0


NC0 is periodically broadcast from the NW to the MS
- in system information and
-

packet information messages

Packet flow active =>

Network sends Packet Measurement Order Message (PMO)


PMO contains NCO value NC2
MS sends measurement reports

Measurements are collected


Reporting time can be set by the operator
Activation:
due to traffic
Coverage reasons

Siemens, 2003

Network Controlled Cell Reselection

Measurement Reports feed the algorithm

Measurement
reports

Idle:
NC0

BSS

Data flow:
NC2

Siemens, 2003

Network Controlled Cell Reselection


Criteria due to traffic

Algorithm evaluates:
Number of configured GPRS/EGPRS channels

Number of used channels

Strategy set by operator:


- Permanently reserved
- Common Pool

Type of allocation
- vertical
- horizontal
Radio Conditions of the neighbor cell must be good

Siemens, 2003

Network Controlled Cell Reselection


Redistribution due to thresholds

Threshold:
Cell_Res-Thres_Out
Threshold:
Cell_Res-Thres_In

cell 2

cell 1
Traffic load in cell

cell 3
Siemens, 2003

Network Controlled Cell Reselection


Criteria due to coverage reasons

Based on RXLEV
Calculate Path loss criterion (C1, C32)
Radio conditions of serving cell
Radio conditions of neighbor cell

Siemens, 2003

Network Controlled Cell Reselection


Parameters

Enable / Disable per BSC


Reporting periods / NC measurement
parameters to MS
Thresholds
Hysteresis

Siemens, 2003

Network Controlled Cell Reselection

Customer Benefit
Optimum usage of available network resources
Better quality of service for the end user
Avoid of traffic congestion

Siemens, 2003

MS/Gb Flow Control

Present Situation
data flow is controlled per cell
flow rates of individual mobiles are not considered

all other mobiles within the cell are effected

Siemens, 2003

MS/Gb Flow Control


Cascaded flow control
Data flow observed both: for cell and for MS

MS flow control

MS flow control

MS flow control

Cell flow control

Siemens, 2003

MS/Gb Flow Control


Leaky Bucket

Queue of frames
w/o permit

Queue of frames
with permit
Gb

Arriving LLC frames

Permit Queue

Bmax

Siemens, 2003

MS/Gb Flow Control


Closed loop control
Calculated data rate RSGSN and Bmax

Bmax

Permit queue
in SGSN

Bmax

BPCU

PCU
buffer

RPCU

Permitted LLC frames

RSGSN

closed loop
Siemens, 2003

MS/Gb Flow Control

Feature Content
Flow rate and buffer sizes individually calculated per MS
Take into account: bursts of individual MSs
Data rates depend on:
Number of allocated channels
Coding s chem es for the currently allocated TBFs

Siemens, 2003

MS/Gb Flow Control

Operator Benefit
Subscribers are more satisfied with the end performance

User Benefit
Only the concerned mobile affected
Continuos data transmission
Reduction of retransmissions (factor 3 ~ depends on cell load)
Improved performance for the end user (up to 20%)

Siemens, 2003

GPRS and EGPRS QoS

Present Situation

Within BR 6.0 QoS improvements:


SF 10432: Service dependent channel allocation
SF 10443: Automatic Horizontal Allocation
SF 10444; GPRS on non-BCCH

Siemens, 2003

GPRS and EGPRS QoS

Feature Content

EDGE-capable mobiles
Priorization of Services
Upgrading of radio Resources

Throughput maximization
Resources allocation adapted to the
current need
Siemens, 2003

GPRS and EGPRS QoS


Scheduling
Priority 1

Scheduling
Priority 2

Scheduling
Priority 3

Radio priority 1 Radio priority 2 Radio priority 3


(UL)
(UL)
(UL)
S. precedence 3
S. precedence 1 S. precedence 2
(DL)
(DL)
(DL)
Scheduling Priority

Scheduling
Priority 4
Radio priority
4
(UL)

Scheduling Weight
(default)
8

Siemens, 2003

GPRS and EGPRS QoS


weight determines the frequency of processing
TBF 3 on TS: weight 2

TBF 2 on TS: weight 4

TBF 1 on TS: weight 8

TBF 1 is processed with factor 2 of TBF2


TBF 2 is processed with factor 2 of TBF 3

Siemens, 2003

GPRS and EGPRS QoS

Radio Resource Allocation

Required number of TSs depends on

required maximum bitrate


throughput of the initial CS
Supposed initial BLER
Optimized allocation -> fair distribution of high priority stuff over all TSs

Siemens, 2003

GPRS and EGPRS QoS

Siemens, 2003

GPRS and EGPRS QoS

Operator Benefit
Maximization of GPRS/EGPRS throughput
Minimization of allocated resources
Increased number of service requests
Improved handling of congestion situation

User Benefit
Make the use of data applications more attractive (improved
performance for the end user)

Siemens, 2003

End of GPRS/EGPRS features

Siemens, 2003