You are on page 1of 18

Power System Control

ET2105 Electrical Power System Essentials


Prof. Lou van der Sluis
12 October 2015

Delft
University of
Technology

Electrical Power System Essentials

Introduction (1)

The customer expects electrical power at constant


frequency and voltage
The system load changes continuously
Electricity can not be stored in large quantities
Maintaining the balance between generation and
consumption

5. Power System Control

2 | 18
ET2105

Introduction (2)

The active power balance is controlled by generators


Another method is load shedding
The reactive power balance is controlled by generators
and static components
The synchronous generator plays an important role

5. Power System Control

3 | 18
ET2105

Increase of Active Power Consumption


f1 = 50 Hz (3000 RPM)

Kinetic energy in the rotating parts of the generator and


turbine are 200 MJ
Suddenly a 10 MW load is connected. What happens to
the frequency?
In 1 second the load consumes 10 MJ more active power P
The frequency will drop to 48.7 Hz
5. Power System Control

4 | 18
ET2105

Increase of Reactive Power


Consumption (1)
10 kV system:
P = 2 MW; cos = 0.9
Xgen = 3

This results in:


I = 128 A -26
Q = 969 kvar

Suddenly the load consumes Q = 1.5 Mvar and P remains at


2 MW. What happens?
The power factor drops to 0.8
The current becomes I = 146 -37
The terminal voltage drops with 100 V

5. Power System Control

5 | 18
ET2105

Increase of Reactive Power


Consumption (2)

P remains 2 MW
Q increases from 969 kvar 1.5 Mvar
I increases from 128 A -26 147 A -37
V drops with 100 V
5. Power System Control

6 | 18
ET2105

Increase of Reactive Power


Consumption (3)

S P jQ VI
I

V1 1 V2 2
Z

V1 1 V2 2
Z

5. Power System Control

7 | 18
ET2105

Increase of Reactive Power


Consumption (4)

S P jQ V2I
P Re S

V1 V2

Q Im S

V1 V2

X
X

sin(1 2 )
cos(1 2 )

V1 V2
X
V2
X

(1 2 )
V2
X

( V1 V2 )

Conclusion:
The voltage depends on the reactive power
The angle of transmission depends on the active power
5. Power System Control

8 | 18
ET2105

Some Important Conclusions

The frequency is a common parameter throughout the


system
The voltage is controlled locally
The control mechanism for P (rotor angle) and Q (voltage
amplitude) operate more or less separately

5. Power System Control

9 | 18
ET2105

The Primary Control


Speed governor control of a generating unit:

Speed governor characteristics:

5. Power System Control

10 | 18
ET2105

The Secondary Control or


Load Frequency Control
Power exchange between three control areas

a) The original (scheduled) situation


b) Incremental generation after losing 400 MW of generation in
control area B
5. Power System Control

11 | 18
ET2105

Voltage Control and Reactive Power (1)


Automatic voltage control

5. Power System Control

12 | 18
ET2105

Voltage Control and Reactive Power (2)


Tap-changing transformer

5. Power System Control

13 | 18
ET2105

Voltage Control and Reactive Power (3)


Capacitor banks

Courtesy of TenneT TSO


B.V.

5. Power System Control

14 | 18
ET2105

Reactive Power Injection


Static Var Compensator (SVC)

Current through a Thyristor Controlled Reactor


5. Power System Control

15 | 18
ET2105

Controlling Active Power Flows


The Phase Shifter

Phasor diagram of the phase shifter


5. Power System Control

16 | 18
ET2105

Controlling Reactive Power Flows (1)


A transmission line with a series capacitor

5. Power System Control

17 | 18
ET2105

Controlling Reactive Power Flows (2)


Thyristor-controlled series capacitor

TCSC reactance as a function of the Thyristor firing


angle
18 | 18
5. Power System Control
ET2105