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# Power System Control

## ET2105 Electrical Power System Essentials

Prof. Lou van der Sluis
12 October 2015

Delft
University of
Technology

Introduction (1)

## The customer expects electrical power at constant

frequency and voltage
Electricity can not be stored in large quantities
Maintaining the balance between generation and
consumption

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Introduction (2)

## The active power balance is controlled by generators

The reactive power balance is controlled by generators
and static components
The synchronous generator plays an important role

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## Increase of Active Power Consumption

f1 = 50 Hz (3000 RPM)

## Kinetic energy in the rotating parts of the generator and

turbine are 200 MJ
Suddenly a 10 MW load is connected. What happens to
the frequency?
In 1 second the load consumes 10 MJ more active power P
The frequency will drop to 48.7 Hz
5. Power System Control

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## Increase of Reactive Power

Consumption (1)
10 kV system:
P = 2 MW; cos = 0.9
Xgen = 3

I = 128 A -26
Q = 969 kvar

## Suddenly the load consumes Q = 1.5 Mvar and P remains at

2 MW. What happens?
The power factor drops to 0.8
The current becomes I = 146 -37
The terminal voltage drops with 100 V

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## Increase of Reactive Power

Consumption (2)

P remains 2 MW
Q increases from 969 kvar 1.5 Mvar
I increases from 128 A -26 147 A -37
V drops with 100 V
5. Power System Control

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Consumption (3)

S P jQ VI
I

V1 1 V2 2
Z

V1 1 V2 2
Z

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## Increase of Reactive Power

Consumption (4)

S P jQ V2I
P Re S

V1 V2

Q Im S

V1 V2

X
X

sin(1 2 )
cos(1 2 )

V1 V2
X
V2
X

(1 2 )
V2
X

( V1 V2 )

Conclusion:
The voltage depends on the reactive power
The angle of transmission depends on the active power
5. Power System Control

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## The frequency is a common parameter throughout the

system
The voltage is controlled locally
The control mechanism for P (rotor angle) and Q (voltage
amplitude) operate more or less separately

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## The Primary Control

Speed governor control of a generating unit:

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## The Secondary Control or

Power exchange between three control areas

## a) The original (scheduled) situation

b) Incremental generation after losing 400 MW of generation in
control area B
5. Power System Control

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## Voltage Control and Reactive Power (1)

Automatic voltage control

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## Voltage Control and Reactive Power (2)

Tap-changing transformer

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Capacitor banks

B.V.

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## Reactive Power Injection

Static Var Compensator (SVC)

## Current through a Thyristor Controlled Reactor

5. Power System Control

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## Controlling Active Power Flows

The Phase Shifter

## Phasor diagram of the phase shifter

5. Power System Control

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## Controlling Reactive Power Flows (1)

A transmission line with a series capacitor

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## Controlling Reactive Power Flows (2)

Thyristor-controlled series capacitor

## TCSC reactance as a function of the Thyristor firing

angle
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5. Power System Control
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