Lecture-1

What Is a Computer?
How is a computer defined? 

Electronic machine which accepts data as input, processes it and gives information as output.
Information
Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful

Data
Raw facts, figures, and symbols

Produces and stores results

p. 6

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Computer Applications in Society
What are some examples of computer applications in society? 
      

Education Finance Government Healthcare Science Publishing Travel Industry

Click to view video p. 33 Figs. 1-42±1-49
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Why Is a Computer So Powerful?
What makes a computer powerful?

Storage

Reliability and Reliability Consistency and Consistency

Speed

Accuracy

Communications

p. 10

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Information Processing Cycle
There are five components of an information processing cycle? 
   

Input Process Output Storage Communication

p. 6 Fig. 1-2

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The Components of a Computer
What is an input device? 

Hardware used to enter data and instructions

Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 1, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Input Devices below Chapter 1 p. 7 Fig. 1-3
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The Components of a Computer
What is an output device? 

Hardware that conveys information to a user

Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 1, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Output Devices below Chapter 1 p. 8 Fig. 1-3

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The Components of a Computer
What is the system unit? 

Box-like case containing electronic components used to process data

p. 8 Fig. 1-3

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The Components of a Computer
What are two main components on the motherboard?
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Also called a processor Carries out instructions that tell computer what to do

Memory
Temporary holding place for data and instructions

p. 8

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The Components of a Computer
What is storage? 

Holds data, instructions, and information for future use
Storage media
Physical material on which data, instructions, and information are stored

Storage device
Records and retrieves items to and from a storage medium

p. 8

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The Components of a Computer
What is a floppy disk?  

Thin, circular, flexible disk enclosed in rigid plastic shell A USB flash drive is portable, and has much greater storage capacity

p. 8 Fig. 1-4

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The Components of a Computer
What is a flash drive? 

Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk Small and lightweight enough to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket 

p. 9 Fig. 1-5

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The Components of a Computer
What is a hard disk?  

Provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or USB flash drive Housed inside the system unit

p. 9 Fig. 1-6

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The Components of a Computer
What is a compact disc? 

Flat, round, portable metal disc 
   CD-ROM CD-RW DVD-ROM DVD+RW

p. 9 Fig. 1-7

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Computer Hardware

The physical devices that make up the computer are called Hardware. Hardware is any part of the computer we can touch e.g. Keyboard, Monitor, Processor, Printer, Mouse, Hard Disk etc.

The System Unit
What are common components inside the system unit? 
 
power supply

Processor Memory Adapter cards 
   Sound card Modem card Video card Network card

drive bays

processor

memory ports 

 

Ports Drive bays Power supply
network card modem card

sound card

video card

p. 181 Fig. 4-2

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The System Unit
What is the motherboard? 

adapter cards processor chip  

Main circuit board in system unit Contains adapter cards, processor chips, and memory chips Also called

memory chips

system board
Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Clock Motherboards below Chapter 4 p. 182 Fig. 4-3

memory slots Expansion slots for adapter cards

motherboard

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Processor
What is the central processing unit (CPU)? 
Interprets

and carries out basic instructions that operate a computer 
Control unit directs and coordinates operations in computer  Arithmetic logic unit Input (ALU) performs Devices arithmetic, comparison, and logical operations

Processor
Control Control Unit Unit Arithmetic Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Logic Unit (ALU) Instructions Data Information

Data

Memory
Instructions Data Information

Information

Output Devices 

Also

called the processor

Storage Devices
p. 183 Fig. 4-5
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Processor
What is a machine cycle? 

Four operations of the CPU comprise a machine cycle
Step 1. Fetch
Obtain program instruction or data item from memory

Memory

Step 4. Store
Write result to memory
Processor

Step 2. Decode
Translate instruction into commands

ALU

Step 3. Execute
Carry out command

Control Unit

p. 184 Fig. 4-6

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Processor
What is a register? 

Temporary high-speed storage area that holds data and instructions
Stores location from where instruction was fetched Stores instruction while it is being decoded Stores results of calculation Stores data while ALU computes it

p. 185

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Processor
What are heat sinks and heat pipes?  

Heat sink²component with fins that cools processor Heat pipe ²smaller device for notebook computers
e

heat sink fan

heat sink

p. 190 Fig. 4-11

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Processor
What is a coprocessor?

Chip that assists processor in performing specific tasks

One type is a floating-point coprocessor also floatingcoprocessor, known as a math or numeric coprocessor

p. 190

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Processor
What is parallel processing?  

Using multiple processors simultaneously to execute a program faster Requires special software to divide problem and bring results together

Control Processor

Processor 1
Memory

Processor 2
Memory

Processor 3
Memory

Processor 4
Memory

Results combined

p. 190 Fig. 4-12

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Data Representation
How do computers represent data? 

Most computers are digital 
Recognize only two discrete states: on or off  Use a binary system to recognize two states  Use Number system with two unique digits: 0 and 1, called bits (short for binary digits)

p. 191 Fig. 4-13

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Data Representation
What is a byte? 


Eight bits grouped together as a unit Provides enough different combinations of 0s and 1s to represent 256 individual characters 
 Numbers Uppercase and lowercase letters Punctuation marks 

p. 191 Fig. 4-14

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emory
What is memory? 

Seat #2B4 Seat #2B3  

Electronic components that store instructions, data, and results Consists of one or more chips on motherboard or other circuit board Each byte stored in unique location called an address, similar to seats on a passenger train
Next

p. 193 Fig. 4-17

emory
How is memory measured? 

By number of bytes available for storage
Term Kilobyte Megabyte Gigabyte Terabyte Abbreviation KB or K MB GB TB Approximate Size 1 thousand bytes 1 million bytes 1 billion bytes 1 trillion bytes

p. 194 Fig. 4-18

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emory
What is random access memory (RAM)?
Memory chips that can be read from and written to by processor
Also called main memory or primary storage Most RAM is volatile, it is lost volatile, when computer¶s power is turned off

Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click RAM below Chapter 4 p. 195

The more RAM a computer has, the faster it responds

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emory
What are two basic types of RAM chips?
Most common type Used for special applications such as cache

Faster variations of DRAM are SDRAM and RDRAM

Static RAM Dynamic (SRAM) RAM (DRAM)

Faster and more reliable than DRAM chips

p. 196

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emory
dual inline memory module

Where does memory reside?  

Resides on small circuit board called memory module Memory slots on motherboard hold memory modules

memory chip

memory slot

p. 196 Fig. 4-20

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emory
How much RAM does an application require?  

Software package System Requirements typically indicates Windows XP Home Edition/Professional ‡ Intel Pentium processor at 233MHZ or higher RAM requirements ‡ AMD K6 (Athlon Duron Family processor at 233MHZ or higher ‡ 64 MB of RAM For optimal performance, you need more than minimum specifications
®

p. 197 Fig. 4-21

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emory
How much RAM do you need? 

Depends on type of applications you intend to run on your computer
128 to 256 MB
‡ Home and business users managing personal finance ‡ Using standard application software such as word processing ‡ Using educational or entertainment CD-ROMs ‡ Communicating with others on the Web

RAM Use

256 to 1 GB
‡ Users requiring more advanced multimedia capabilities ‡ Running number-intensive accounting, financial, or spreadsheet programs ‡ Using voice recognition ‡ Working with videos, music, and digital imaging ‡ Creating Web sites ‡ Participating in video conferences ‡ Playing Internet games

1 GB and up
‡ Power users creating professional Web sites ‡ Running sophisticated CAD, 3D design, or other graphics-intensive software

p. 197 Fig. 4-22

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emory
What is cache? 


Helps speed computer processes by storing frequently used instructions and data Also called memory cache 
  
L1 cache built into processor L2 cache slower but has larger capacity L2 advanced transfer cache is faster, built directly on processor chip L3 cache is separate from processor chip on motherboard (L3 is only on computers that use L2 advanced transfer cache)

Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Cache below Chapter 4 p. 198 Fig. 4-23

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emory
What is read-o ly memory (R M)?
Memory chi s that store ermanent erma ent data and instr ctions Nonvolatile memory, it is not memory, lost hen com uter¶s po er is turned off o

EEPR M R (electrically Three types: erasable programmable read-only memory)² eademory)² Firm are² are² Type of PR M Manufactured ith containing microcode PR M permanently ritten programmer data, instructions, (programmable can erase read-only eador information memory)² emory)² Blank R M chip onto hich a programmer can rite permanently

p. 198

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emory
What is flash memory? 


Nonvolatile memory that can be erased electronically and reprogrammed Used with PDAs, digital cameras, digital cellular phones, music players, digital voice recorders, printers, Internet receivers, and pagers
Step 3.
To headphones Flash memory chip Plug the headphones into the MP3 player, push a button on the MP3 player, and listen to the music through the headphones.

Step 1.
Purchase and download MP3 music tracks from a Web site. With one end of a special cable connected to the system unit, connect the other end into the MP3 player.

From computer Flash memory card Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Flash Memory below Chapter 4 p. 199 Fig. 4-24

Step 2.
Instruct the computer to copy the MP3 music track to the flash memory chip in the MP3 player. MP3 Player

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emory
What is CMOS?
Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor memory Used in some RAM chips, flash memory chips, and other types of memory chips

Uses battery power to retain information when other power is turned off

Stores date, time, and computer¶s startup information

p. 200

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Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards
Types of Adapter Cards

What is an adapter card?  

Enhances system unit or provides connections to external devices called peripherals Also called an expansion card

Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Adapter Cards below Chapter 4 p. 201 Fig. 4-27

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Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards
What is an expansion slot?  

An opening, or socket, on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card With Plug and Play, the computer automatically configures cards and other devices as you install them

p. 201 Fig. 4-28

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Ports and Connectors
What are ports and connectors? 


Port connects external devices to system unit Connector joins cable to peripheral

Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Ports and Connectors below Chapter 4 p. 203 Fig. 4-31±4.32

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Ports and Connectors
What is a serial port? 


Transmits one bit of data at a time Connects slow-speed devices, such as mouse, keyboard, modem

p. 205 Fig. 4-34

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Ports and Connectors
What is a parallel port? 

Connects devices that can transfer more than one bit at a time, such as a printer

p. 205 Fig. 4-35

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Buses
What is a bus? 

Channel that allows devices inside computer to communicate with each other 
  System bus or Address bus connects processor and RAM Bus width determines number of bits transmitted at one time Word size is the number of bits processor can interpret and execute at a given time

Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 4, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Buses below Chapter 4 p. 208 Fig. 4-38

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Bays
What is a bay?  

Open area inside system unit used to install additional equipment Drive bays typically hold disk drives

p. 210 Fig. 4-40

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Power Supply
What is a power supply?

Converts AC Power into DC Power

Fan keeps system unit components cool

External peripherals might use an AC adapter, which is an external power supply
p. 211
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Categories of Computers
What are the categories of computers?
Personal computers (desktop) Mobile computers and mobile devices Midrange servers Mainframe computers Supercomputers
p. 18
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Personal Computers
What is a desktop computer? 

Designed so all of the components fit on or under a desk or table

p. 19 Fig. 1-18

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Personal Computers
What is a notebook computer? 
 

Portable, small enough to fit on your lap Also called a laptop computer Generally more expensive than a desktop computer

Click to view Web Link, click Chapter 1, Click Web Link from left navigation, then click Notebook Computers below Chapter 1 p. 20 Fig. 1-20

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Handheld Computers
What is a tablet PC? 
 

Resembles a letter-sized slate Allows you to write on the screen using a digital pen Especially useful for taking notes

p. 20 Fig. 1-21

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Handheld Computers
What are Web-enabled handheld computers? 


Allow you to check e-mail and access the Internet Web-enabled telephone is a ³smart phone´

p. 21 Fig. 1-23

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Handheld Computers
What is a handheld computer?

Small enough to fit in your hand

Used by mobile employees such as meter readers and delivery people

p. 21

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Handheld Computers
What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)? 

Provides personal organizer functions 
    Calendar Appointment book Address book Calculator Notepad

Click to view video

p. 21 Fig. 1-23

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Servers
What types of servers are there?
Midrange server Powerful, large computer that supports up to a few thousand computers Mainframe Very powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of computers Supercomputer The fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations
p. 22 and 23 Figs. 1-25±1-27
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