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Exposure to

rich,
meaningful
&
comprehens
ible input

Catering
for
feelings
and
thinking

Self-notice
of language
features

Langua
ge
acquisit
ion
Employing
multidimensi
onal mental
representatio
n
Nurturing
positive
emotions

Convergence of
teaching,
course
objectives, and
learners 'needs
& wants

Catering for
learners
individual needs
& wants, and
learning styles

Language
teaching

Language
development +
language
acquisition

Comprehensive
educational
development

MY INTENDED CONTEXT
STUDENTS:
Adult refugees
Age: 18+
Diverse cultural &
educational backgrounds
different literacy and
numeracy levels
various life experience
psychologically/
emotionally sensitive
issues
Being in the process of
settling in Australia

THE INSTITUTION:
Community language
centers
Strongly influenced by
government policies
Assigns students into
classes according to their
levels
Offers other vocational
training courses and
numeracy courses

CONTEXT EVALUATION
Strengths
A wealth of learners
diverse life experience,
backgrounds, and
cultures
Learners desires to start
a new life in Australia
Government support in
other fields ( computer
skills, literacy and
numeracy, soft wares,
counseling, etc.)

Learners needs
and
wants
Short-term objectives:
English for everyday
activities
Long-term objectives:
English competency for
employment and formal
education

CONTEXT EVALUATION
THE SITUATION
Mandatory national
policy
Introduce criteria and
objectives for language
programs in Australia

BUT:
Overlook culture
differences, emotional
issues, individual
difficulties

SOLUTION GUIDELINES
Differences make
advantages
The diversity of learners
backgrounds as a material
source for teaching.
Advantages from
available government
support
Facilities and services

TOMLINSONS PRINCIPLES IN ACTION


Methodology meets expectations of learners
and course objectives
Use curriculum as orientation, not prescription
Employ various practices: need analysis, reflective
teaching, learner autonomy, surveys
Fill the gap between learner variables, learners
progress and course objectives

PEACE FOR
ALL

TOMLINSONS PRINCIPLES IN
ACTION

Incorporate a proportion
of content-based or topicbased approach
Learners backgrounds
as a material source for
teaching.

Negotiations between
the new culture and the
old cultures
Small-scale class
activities: traditional
games, songs, holidays.
Building the rapport
between teacherslearners and learnerslearners
Discussion forums,
learning pairs & groups

The
government +
the institution
policies

WHAT TO DO?

Learners
needs and
wants

Their personal
constraints
Teache
rs

IM NOT
Cooperate
and discuss
ALONE

with the others ( colleagues,


teachers forums, supervisors,
STUDENTS, etc.)
Use textbooks for orientation + adapt
available material sources + use
supplementary materials ( in
accordance with learners needs and
wants)
Time saving
A balance between learners needs &
wants and official policies

REFERENCES
Tomlinson, B. (2010) Principles of effective materials
development. In N. Harwood (ed.) English language teaching
materials: Theory and practice. (pp. 81-108). Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
[Untitled illustration of team huddle]. Retrieved March 28, 2015
from http://www.sportskeeda.com/football/covering-allfacets- determine-winner-ballon-dor
[Untitled illustration of a traffic sign]. Retrieved March 31, 2015
from http://autopro.com.vn/ky-thuat-tu-van/tvgt-tron-bocac- bien-canh-bao-nguy-hiem-20120502044917379.chn
[Untitled illustration of teachers]. Retrieved March 31, 2015
from http://prikolitut.in/funny-pictures-of-teachers.html