MANGROVE IN NIGER DELTA

MARINE COMMUNITY ECOLOGY

Niger Delta

From Challenged To Changed

‡ Niger Delta is located mostly in the South-South and also the south west and east zone of Nigeria with population of over 20million. ‡ It is characterized by extensive interconnectivity of creeks, deltaic tributaries, flood plains, mangrove swamps and other coastal features

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MAPS

From Challenged To Changed

Map showning Niger Delta

Map of Nigeria

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Spatial distribution of mangrove

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Cont...

From Challenged To Changed

‡ The Niger Delta is the world's second largest wetland dominated by mangrove swamps and low lying alluvial plains making it one of the most fertile regions.

Short Mangrove 3/16/2010

Tall Mangrove
Source :www.cas.umkc.edu/geo :

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Mangrove

From Challenged To Changed

‡ Mangrove is unique inter-tidal wetland ecosystem found in sheltered tropical and subtropical shores, which receive inputs from regular tidal flushing and from freshwater streams and rivers. ‡ It is characterized by high temperature, fluctuating salinity, alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions, periodically wet and dry, unstable and shifting substratum.

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Cont...

From Challenged To Changed

‡ Mangrove Communities made up of taxonomically diverse groups of plants and animals, and each community has its own distinctive flora and fauna species«Hong kong Agriculture, fisheries
and conservation Department

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Origin of Mangrove

From Challenged To Changed

‡ The earliest mangrove species originated in

the Indo-Malayan region. ‡ Because of their unique floating propagules and seeds, species spread westward, borne by ocean currents, to India and East Africa, and eastward to the Americas. ‡ It arrived in Central and South America between 66 million years ago (upper Cretaceous period) and 23 million years ago (lower Miocene epoch)«.
Map action project (http://mangroveactionproject.org/)

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Mangrove Habitat and Growth

From Challenged To Changed

‡ Mangrove distribution is primarily determined by sea level . ‡ Other secondary factors are: air temperature, salinity, ocean currents, storms, shore slope, and soil substrate. ‡ Most mangroves grow on muddy soils, sand, peat, and coral rock.

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Mangrove Reproduction

From Challenged To Changed

‡ Mangrove species can propagate successfully in a marine environment because of special adaptations. Embryo germination begins on the tree itself and later drops its propagules, which may take root in the soil beneath.

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Niger Delta Mangrove

From Challenged To Changed

‡ The Niger Delta mangrove belt is adjudged the largest expanse in Africa and the fourth largest in the world. ‡ The large expanses of mangrove forests in the Niger Delta are estimated to cover approximately 5,000 to 8,580 km² of land ‡ 60 percent of the fish in the Gulf of Guinea breed here.

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Mangrove

From Challenged To Changed

A strip of Nypa Palm with Rhizophora Mangrove species in the background.
Source: www.cas.umkc.edu/geo 3/16/2010

Mangrove vegetation

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Ecosystem Service

From Challenged To Changed

‡ Shelter ‡ Soil stabilization & erosion protection ‡ Nutrient retention and water quality improvement through filtration of sediments and pollutants ‡ Flood mitigation ‡ Sequestration of carbon dioxide ‡ Protection of associated marine ecosystems

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Ecosystem Good
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Firewood Medicines Fibers & Dyes Food Charcoal Construction materials

From Challenged To Changed

Mangrove logs for local fuel energy

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Threats
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

From Challenged To Changed

Shrimp aquaculture Charcoal production and logging Oil exploration and extraction Urbanization and urban expansion

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Cont....

From Challenged To Changed

‡ The mangroves of the Niger Delta are under growing anthropogenic induced stress. ‡ The threats range from oil and gas activities ‡ The over-dependence of coastal communities on mangroves for domestic and economic uses .

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Oil and Gas

From Challenged To Changed

‡ Of all the factors suppressing the mangroves of the Niger Delta, oil spillage constitutes the most potent threat. ‡ While gas flaring has caused uncontrobally fire, resulting to a large elimination of population of endangered species

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Case Study:BodoMangrove (Ogoniland)

From Challenged To Changed

‡ The web of oil pipelines connecting Bodo West) located in the mangrove swampland of Bodo are sources of oil leakages to the environment. ‡ Between 1970-2003, four oil spillages occurred ‡ June 2008,another oil spillage occurred

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Consequences

From Challenged To Changed

Source:www.cas.umkc.edu/geo

Source:www.flickr.com/photos/marcusbensasson

Source:www.foei.org/en

Source:www.greendiary.com

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Ecological Cost

From Challenged To Changed

‡ About 20km long of mangrove died out and remain un-recovered ‡ Death of endemic biota (flora and fauna) ‡ Defoliated tree ‡ Interference with respiratory activity of submerged roots ‡ Mortal damages to food species

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Cont«

From Challenged To Changed

Toxicity of hydrocarbons on Organism. Mortal damages to food species These include:
Oyster (Crassostrea gasar) bloody cockle (Anadara senilis) Swimming Crab (Callinectis spp) fiddler crab (Uca tangeri),

Snapper (Lutjanaus spp) mangrove hairy crab (Gionopsis Pelli), mudskipper (Periopthalmus papilio), Mullets (Mugil cephalus, Liza spp),

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Cont...

From Challenged To Changed

‡ Alterations in the pH of the soil and water, ‡ Alteration of the natural hydrology of the mangrove; ‡ Formation of a barrier to the ebb and flow of water ‡ Generally, Over 21,000 hectares of the mangrove forest in the region has disappeared.

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Solution

From Challenged To Changed

‡ The stoppage of any new oil exploration in mangrove zones ‡ The withdrawal of all oil infrastructure located in Mangroves ‡ The avoiding of mangrove zone in the planning of oil and gas pipeline routes ‡ A socio-environmental impact study of all oil activities in mangrove zones ‡ Post-spill Ecological Assessment Studies for the purpose ecosystem restoration
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From Challenged To Changed

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