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Elongation Requirements

for
Stainless Steel Rebar
Presented by:
Suresh Gupta
ASTM Committee Meeting A01.05

May 8, 2012

Purpose of Elongation
Elongation is a measure of ductility,
which provides confidence that
metals can be formed, without
cracking or fracturing.
In rebar, it defines ductility so that
bars can be bent without cracking.
If bars do not crack during fabrication,
any excess elongation is irrelevant.

Alloy Characteristics
With all other variables remaining same,

Austenitic Alloys have highest


elongation.
Duplex Alloys have elongation in mid
range
Ferritic Alloys have lowest elongation

Measurement Methods and Facts


% Elongation, when measured in a fixed
gage length, e.g. 8 inches, is lower than
when measured in a gage length, as a
multiple of diameter, e.g. 4 X diameter (4d).
(when 4d is less than fixed gage length).
Elongation is generally lower as diameter
goes smaller.
This fact is clearly described in ASTM E8,
Appendix XI

ASTM E8
Standard Test Method for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
Appendix XI Factors Affecting Tensile Test Results

Comparison of elongation values determined using different


specimens requires that the following ratio be controlled:
Lo/(Ao)1/2
(XI.1)
Where:
Lo = original gage length of specimen, and
Ao= original cross-sectional area of specimen.
XI.4.4.1 Specimens with smaller L o/(Ao)1/2 ratios generally
give greater elongation.
Note: (Ao)1/2 is proportional to diameter (d).
Therefore, for same ductility, larger diameter samples result in
greater elongation values, when measured in fixed gage length.

ASTM A955-9a
Until revision 10a, elongation was not required for
sizes # 3-5 Grade 75, probably because it was known
that it is unrealistic or not necessary.
Grade 40 for sizes 7 and larger because, in any condition
it will meet the requirement, anyway.

% Elongation Requirements for Rebar


Carbon and Alloy steels
ASTM A615 requires 6 to 7% for Grade 75
ASTM A706 requires 10 to 14% for all Grades.
Stainless Steels

BS 6744 requires 14% minimum in 5d


gage length for Grade 500 (72.5 ksi).
ASTM A955 requires 20% minimum in 8
inch gage length for all grades, all
sizes.

Manufacturing & Process Control


Even with precise chemistry and process
control, duplex stainless steels meet
the
elongation
requirement
very
marginally.
If rebar is supplied in coils, machine
straightening will cause work hardening and
elongation will go down even further.

This may cause unnecessary


dispute.

Rationale
If 6% elongation in carbon steel is
sufficient
If 14% in 5d is sufficient for stainless steel
rebar per BS6744 in Europe,

It should be sufficient for us as well.


FYI
ASTM Specifications for plain smooth bars
require elongation in 4d

Proposal
It is therefore recommended that,
Using a foot note to Table 3, elongation
requirements be lowered to 14% for
Grade 75,
for all sizes of duplex grades and,
all grades of stainless steels under 1.00
inch.