You are on page 1of 13

Universidade Federal de Viosa

Departamento de Fsica - DPF


Centro de Cincias Exatas - CCE
FIS 650 Teoria Eletromagntica I

Magnetoresistan
ce
Article

Magnetoresistance in electrochemically
deposited Polybithiophene thin films.
By J.de F.P.Souza, E.L.Kowalski,
L.C.Akcelrud, J.P.M.Serbena.

Gabriel Vincius de Oliveira Silva,


67828

The Magnetoresistance (MR) is the change in electrical resistance due to an


applied external magnetic field (H), i.e., increased or decreased resistance
(positive or negative relative resistance with H = 0)
OMR - Ordinary
Magnetoresistance
Schematic representation of various types of
MR behavior as a function of applied magnetic
field. The MR characteristics at various
actual materials at low temperatures, in
ascending order of effect.

AMR Anisotropic
Magnetoresistance

GMR Giant Magnetoresistance

Spin Valve

Abstract
Magnetoresistance phenomenon
Spin-coated
Vacuum Thermal sublimated
material

Hole
mobility of Vs was measured by

impedance spectroscopy measurements.

In this work, electrochemistry is


used as organic deposition
technique.

*electrical
measurements

Tunneling Junction

The highest Magnetoresistance, ~0,6%,


was observed for a 273nm PBT thickness,
independent on direction between
current and magnetic field.

Introduction
In the last decade, the semiconducting characteristics
of conjugated organic materials have been extensively
explored in a wide variety of devices.
Applications:
Light-emitting
diodes
Solar cells
Transistors

Magnetoresistance
Relates the dependence
of
resistance
to
na
applied magnetic field
on the material.

Organic Magnetoresistance
(OMAR)
Observed
on:

Like fluorene derivatives.


Small molecular weight
organic semiconductors (Al ,

Magnetoresistance
(MR)
Deposited by spincoating
Deposited by Vacuum
Thermal Sublimation

Introduction
Electrochemistry is a highly effective
technique.
Small energy requirements.
Small loss of materials.
Direct deposition onto desired
substrate.
Easy control of film parameters
(Thickness, for example).
Low cost of production on large
scale.

The aim of this work is to


report
observation
of
OMAR
effect on a single layer of
electrodeposited
polymer
sensible
to
light,
Poly
(bithiphene)(PBT).
Academic point of view
Industry point of view

Reference
electrode

Motivatio
n

Working
electrode
Counter
electrode Potentiostat

Electrochemic
al cell

The ITO/PBT interface and


its
electrical
characterization
allow
future
applications
to
organic
optoelectronic
devices
sensible
to
magnetic fields.

Experimental
ITO glass covered was used as
substrate for the Electrodeposition of
PBT.

Cleaning steps

15 min acetone.
15 min isopropyl
acohol.
15 min deionized water
ultrasonic baths.

ITO
glass

PBT

The
films
were
negatively
polarized
0,2V.
Profilomete
r

Electrodepositi
on
Conventional Three-electrode
electrochemical cell.
Working electrode (ITO)
Counter electrode (Pt)
Pseudoreference electrode
(Ag)
Galvanostatic
mode.

Current density: 1mA/


Electrolyte: 0.1 M LiCl and
0.05 M 2,2-bithiophene in propylene
carbonate.

The Samples were dried


in vacuum at 60C for
1h. were
Devices
constructed

depositing
Al
by
vacuum
thermal evaporation on top of
PBT
thin
films,
at
base
pressure of Torr.

Final structure ITO/PBT/Al

Experimental

Scheme of the setup used for the magneto-electric


characterization.

Results and
discussion
Fermi-Dirac distribution function at temperatures
above 0 K, and the current-voltage dependence.

Usual Fowler-Nordheim plot

The interface energy barrier height


The
estimated
interface
energy
barrier
heights are ~1.01, ~0.90, and ~0.90 eV for
273,
333,
and
362
nm
PBT
thickness,
respectively.

Results and
discussion

The
local
maxima are
related to
Susceptanc
resonance
e
Mobilit
frequencies
y
.
Where most charge carriers are transported
through the material with no delayed
current signal.
Thermally Stimulated Current
(TSC)
It consists on the analysis of
relaxation
peaks
of
current
dependent on temperature.

237K

239K 240K
0,49eV
0,49eV

Results and
discussion

Magnetoresistance phenomenon

The Figure presents the electrical measurements


on a sample submitted to magnetic field (H)
perpendicular to the direction of the current.

Applied a constant voltage


Current is measured
As the magnetic field changes, it is possible to
see
a
dependent
variation
on
current,
representing
a
variable
resistance
(Magnetoresistance)
The
Magnetoresistance
can be calculated by
the relative variation
of the resistance with
and
without
applied
magnetic field:

Presents
the
Magnetoresistance
as
a
function of applied magnetic field of just
one period, to ease its observation.

Results and
discussion

The
samples
with
different
thicknesses
presented
similar
Magnetoresistance
characteristics.
A slightly higher value was obtained for
the thinner PBT layer. The saturation
magnetic field is estimated in ~20 mT for
all three thicknesses.
This result suggests that the MR value can
be
increased
by
decreasing
the
film
thickness.

The direction of the current with respect to


the direction of the applied magnetic field
was investigated by making measurements in
both orientations:
parallel and perpendicular
This result is consistent with previously
reports where no dependence of OMAR on
direction between current and magnetic field
was observed.

Conclusions
In conclusion, devices consisting of electrodeposited PBT
thin films on ITO and Al as superior electrode were
constructed in the sandwich structure ITO/PBT/Al.

> energy barrier of approximately 0.9 eV


for hole injection.
>The hole mobility of PBT thin film was measured by
impedance spectroscopy as approximately 2.6105 cm2/Vs.
>A
positive
organic
Magnetoresistance
value
of
approximately
0.6
%
was
observed
for
a
273
nm
electrodeposited PBT thickness. This value is slightly
dependent on thickness, being smaller (~0.4 %) for higher
thicknesses (333 and 362 nm), and independent on relative
direction between current and magnetic
field.

Thank
you

Presented by Gabriel
Vincius.

The

end.