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Universal Mobile

Telecommunications System
(UMTS)
Prof.G.Markarian

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Overview

New promised services


UMTS: A historical overview
Basic concepts
Cell and network structure
Radio interface
Power control and handover
Other 3G systems

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

UMTS coverage vs. bit rate


UMTS

Vehicle
Outdo
ors

Broadband Radio

Walk
Fixed

Indoor
s

GSM
0.5

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

2.0

155Mb/s

UMTS services
Videoconference
Video streaming
Video on demand

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

UMTS services
Interactive Map
Localization Service
Navigation System

Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

3G Mobile Systems
New exciting services: live music,
interactive Megabit web sessions, video
conference, digital TV
CDMA2000 (upgrade on IS-95B)
WCDMA (upgrade on GSM)
TD-SCDMA (in China upgrade on GSM)
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

UMTS
The overall project of ETSI relating to 3rd
Generation mobile systems is known as the
Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
(UMTS) while the UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access
Network is called UTRAN.
It was submitted to IMT-2000 body in 1998.
It ensures compatibility with 2G GSM, IS-95,
PDC TDMA technologies, as well as 2.5G.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

UMTS
UMTS has been developed mainly in
countries with GSM networks infrastructure.
Disadvantage: new frequency band required.
Advantage: Plenty of new capacity, hence
possibilities for new exciting services.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Historical Overview
Early 1990 start of research (with ETSI funded
projects RACE1/2, CODIT, ATDMA)
Feb 1992: 1885-2025MHz and 2110-2200MHz
allocated for future UMTS use
Dec. 1996, Zurich: establishment of UMTS form
Jan. 1998, Paris: WCDMA with FDD- and TDDCDMA selected for UMTS operation

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Historical Overview
Dec. 1998: 3GPP formed in Copenhagen
April 1999: NTT DoCoMo first supplier of
WCDMA equipment for Japan
Jan 2001; DoCoMo launched a trial 3G service (imode). Three phone models commercially available
Feb. 2005: Ericsson demonstrates 9 Mbps
communication with WCDMA and HSDPA.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

UMTS

EUROPE:
IMT-2000 band: WCDMA
GSM 1800 band:EDGE
AMERICAS
EDGE,WCDMA and
multi-carrier CDMA
in existing bands
currently used by 2G
systems

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

JAPAN:
IMT-2000 band: WCDMA

KOREA:
IMT-2000 band: WCDMA
ASIA:
IMT-2000 band: WCDMA
GSM 1800 band:EDGE

FOMA: Freedom of Mobile


Multimedia Access
First commercial 3G network
Launched by NTT DoCoMo in Oct 2001
Based on an earlier version (Release99) of the
UMTS.
2GHz frequency band, WCDMA with 64 kbps
(uplink) and 384 kbps (downlink). Uplink 64kbps
circuit intended for real-time services (e.g., video
conference).
Available services: Internet access, e-mail, file
transfers, faxing, telephony, video conference.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

UMTS: Cell Structure


Different coverage to different users. There
are four different cell structures:
1. picocell (e.g., one office room)
2. microcell (e.g., several buildings)
3. macrocell (e.g., few kilometers)
4. global cell (covered by a satellite)
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

UMTS: Network Structure


A basic network structure consists of three
fundamental components:
1. Radio access network (RAN) provides access
between UMTS and a mobile user via BS
2. Core network (CN) or fixed network
responsible for handling all internal connections
3. Intelligent network (IN) in charge of billing,
location registration, roaming, handover
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

UMTS: Technology Behind


Wideband CDMA (WCDMA) with direct
sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS)
5MHz radio channels
WCDMA simulators are 10 times more
compute-intensive than 2G simulators,
hence increased cost.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

UMTS: Radio Interface


UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA) is
with two operating modes: FDD & TDD
UTRA FDD is suitable for suburban areas
with rates up to 384 kbps.
UTRA TDD works in households suitable
for speech/video broadcast with up to
2Mbps rate.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

UTRA-FDD
Occupied frequency band: 1920-1980 MHz
(uplink) and 2110-2170 MHz (downlink)
190MHz span between downlink and uplink
Complex performance control needed
Minimum frequency band is 2x5MHz.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

UTRA-TDD
Same carrier frequencies are used for
uplink and downlink.
Channel separation is implemented by using
different spreading codes and time slots
Cellwise synchronization is required, hence
suitable for small cells (indoor).

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

UTRA: Specifications
Maximum number of voice channels per 2x5MHz: 250 (FDD) and
120 (TDD)
Voice codec: AMR codec
Channel coding: convolutional and turbo codes
Rake receiver is used
Modulation: QPSK
Data type: packet and circuit-switched data
Chip rates: 7.68 (FDD) and 3.84 (TDD) Mcps
Frame length: 10 msec with 15 slots per frame
5MHz channels with channel raster of 200kHz
Handover: Soft and hard
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

WCDMA
WCDMA system deployment has reached
the level where first operators in Europe
have launched the networks for commercial
operation and more operators set to follow.
Currently, the main focus shifts from
controlling the radio resources to quality
management and service/quality
differentiation.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

WCDMA
Following the first WCDMA version,
Release'99, being deployed, the next step in
WCDMA standardisation evolution has been
completed for improved system performance.
The most significant feature completed is the
High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA)
services, which should offer speeds up to 810Mbps.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

WCDMA RAN Architecture


The use of WCDMA radio access
technology has shaped the radio access
network (RAN) architecture.
Smooth system operation and deployment
requires that there are no network locations
where soft handover is not possible between
the cells operating on the same frequency as
done with CDMA technology.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

WCDMA RAN Architecture


Without the link existing to all base stations,
power control cannot operate correctly and the
near-far problem would be introduced in the
uplink.
The following figure shows the basic
WCDMA radio access network architecture
indicating the connections for both circuitswitched and packet-switched traffic.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

WCDMA RAN Architecture


3G MSC
RNC

Iub

Iu-CS

Iur

3G SGSN
Node B

Iu-PS
RNC

MS
Iub

Node B

Radio Network Controller


Responsible for cell control;
equivalent to BS

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

GGSN

WCDMA RAN Interface


The interface between the base station
(denoted as Node B in 3GPP terminology)
and the Radio Network Controller (RNC) is
called Iub.
The interface between two RNCs is denoted
as Iur.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

WCDMA RAN Architecture


The open and standardized Iur interface is
already being deployed and tested in the
multi-vendor network by many operators
and vendors, thus ensuring the soft
handover functionality in multi-vendor
environment as well.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

WCDMA RAN Architecture


The Mobile Switching Center (3G MSC)
has basically the same functionality as with
GSM networks to switch the Circuit
Switched (CS) transactions.
The Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN)
performs the similar functions to Packet
Switched (PS) services.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

WCDMA Logical, Transport and


Physical Channels
The channel structure for WCDMA consists
of logical, transport, and physical channels.
This structure is related to the UMTS
protocol architecture defined in 3GPP, TSG
RAN 25.301.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

UTRA FDD Protocol Architecture


Radio resource control

Control Plane

User Plane

L3

Data convergence protocol

Control

Control

Control

Control

Control

RRC

PDCP
BMC

L2/PDCP

L2/BMC

Radio link control


RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC

RLC

L2/RLC

RLC

Logical Channels

MAC

L2/MAC
Transport Channels

Physical Layer

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

L1

Key WCDMA Physical Parameters


Physical layer parameter

Alternatives

Chip rate

3.84 Mc s

Carrier spacing (nominal)

5 MHz

Carrier raster

200 kHz

Modulation uplink/downlink

Dual-channel QPSK/ QPSK

Channel coding

Convolutional or Turbo coding

Frame length

10 ms

Interleaving length

10, 20, 40 or 80 ms

Spreading factors
uplink/downlink
Power control command rate

4-256/4-512
1500 Hz

User data rate with 1/2


0-2.8 Mbps (terminal capability)
rate coding
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

Spreading Codes
Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor
(OVSF) codes are used.
Number of available OVSF codes is exactly
equal to the spreading factor.
They can be completely orthogonal if they
operate in exactly synchronized channels.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Spreading
You can calculate the bit rate for a channel
as:
Bit rate = chip rate /spreading factor
The following table shows the spreading
factors used for different bit rates.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor

c = (1,1,1,1)
4,1
c2,1 = (1,1)
c4,2 = (1,1,-1,-1)

c2,2 = (1,-1)

c4,3 = (1,-1,1,-1)
c4,4 = (1,-1,-1,1)

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Spreading
User Bit Rate
(kbps)

Spreading Factor Chip Rate (Mcps)

30

128

3.84

60

64

3.84

120

32

3.84

240

16

3.84

480

3.84

960

3.84

1920

3.84

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Downlink Modulation: QPSK


Q
1.5

Spreading Sequence
I
DPDCH/DPCCH

SP

0.5

Cch
Q

I
-1.5

-0.5

0.5
-0.5

-1.5

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

1.5

Cells
A cellular network is required to ensure the
3G can provide a high capacity network.
As with any cellular system, the total
capacity of the network is dependent on the
size of the cells used.
The smaller the cells are made, the larger
the total capacity.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

Cells
However, the cell size is limited by the
amount of infrastructure that can be set-up.
The cell size also determines the maximum
channel capacity for each cell, as
propagation effects such as multipath and
fading force large cells to have a lower data
rate.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

Cells
Large cells also have to service a large
number of users, and since the cell capacity
is approximately fixed, each user can only
have a reduced data rate with respect to a
smaller cell.
In order to optimize the cellular network
four cell types are used.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

Cell Types
These are the picocell, microcell, macrocell,
and global cell.
These cell types trade off cell size with total
capacity and services.
The following table shows the three cell
types used in the 3G system and some of
the cell characteristics.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

Cells
Pico-cell

Micro-cell

Macro-cell

Cell radius

<100m

<1000m

<20km

Antenna

Ceiling/wall
mounted

Below roof top height

Roof top mounting

Max. multipath delay


spread

1usec

5usec

20usec

Applications and
environments

Indoor/Outdoor
Within buildings
City centres
Local high bit rate

High density outdoor


Business (indoor)
Fixed (Outdoor)
Inner city areas

Low density areas


Suburban areas
Urban areas
Fixed (outdoor)

Services and data


rate supported

All services (up to


2Mbps)

Up to 384kbps

Limited sub-set
(up to 144kpbs)

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Radio Resource Management


Radio Resource Management (RRM)
consists of all functionalities that are
handling the air interface resources of a
radio access network.
These functions together are responsible for
supplying optimum coverage, offering the
maximum planned capacity, guaranteeing
the required QoS, and ensuring efficient use
of physical and transport resources.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

Radio Resource Management


RRM consists of power control (PC), handover
control (HC), congestion control (CC).
CC is typically subdivided into admission control
(AC), load control (LC), and packet data
scheduling and the resource manager (RM).
The actual RRM algorithms are not standardized
and are subject to individual interpretation.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Near-far problem

Bla,
Bla

Bl
a,
Bl
a

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

MSs closer to BS
may create too much
interference.
Requirements: fast
power control in MS
Target: all MSs are
received at the BS
with the same power

Near-far
problem
The uplink issue

D1

D2
D1> D2

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Power Control


Prevent near-far effect
Maintain the link quality in uplink and in
downlink by controlling the transmission powers
Minimize effects of fast and slow fading
Minimize interference in network and hence
maximizes the number of connections that can be
served with the required Quality of (QoS)
A secondary advantage is, that the battery
consumption of the MS is minimised.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Power Control


For the WCDMA standard, the power
control is applied in both uplink and in
downlink.
When the MS initiates a call, it adjusts its
transmission power based on the received
pilot signal power.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Power Control


The pilot signal is a cell specific signal
broadcast in every cell with constant power.
It provides a rough measure of the
propagation loss between the MS and the
BS.
The stronger the received pilot signal power
is, the less transmission power is needed.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Power Control


This type of initial power adjustment is
arranged by open-loop power control.
The process has to be supported by a priori
information which mobile receives.
To set up a connection also other control
channels are required to be used.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Power Control


The variations in the multipath channel may
cause that a fixed target SIR value cannot
always guarantee a satisfactory bit error
rate.
Therefore the target must be controlled
based on the achieved bit error rate or frame
error rate.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Power Control


If the error rate is too high, the target is
increased until the desired error rate is met.
Increasing the target for the uplink causes
the open-loop power control to lift the
transmit power of MS until the new target is
reached.
The controlling of the SIR target is named
outer-loop power control.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Power Control


Outer-loop power control can:
1). Compensate changes in the environment;
2). Adjust the SIR target to achieve the
required bit error rate;
3). Depends on MS mobility and multipath
diversity.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Power Control


The wideband signal in uplink and downlink is
often subject to fast fading.
Thus, an additional mechanism called closed-loop
(inner-loop) power control is needed.
In closed-loop power control, the transmitted
power of the MS is adjusted based on the received
power measurement at the BS.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Power Control


BS compares the received energy per bit to
interference energy ratio Eb/Io to a target
value and commands the MS to increase or
decrease its power accordingly.
The same process is performed in the
downlink direction.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Closed Loop Power Control


RX

(C/I)>(C/I)th

RX

TX

DPCCH

RX

YES

Decrease by PTxc

NO
Increase by PTxc
TX

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Power Control


Hence, closed-loop power control mitigates
fast fading, functions in both downlink and
uplink direction, and works based on a
fixed quality target set in mobile station or
base station (for downlink and uplink,
respectively).

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Handover Control


Handover (HO) control is a cell reselection
process, when an MS moves away from the
cell under the control of one BS to another.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Handover Control


The Handover Control of WCDMA
supports different types of handovers and
handover procedures.
The HO can be divided into the following
handover types:

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Handover Control


Intra-system HO is occurring within a
WCDMA system. It can be further
subdivided into Intra-frequency HO,
between cells belonging to the same
WCDMA carrier, and Inter-frequency HO,
between cells operated on different
WCDMA carriers.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Handover Control


Inter-system HO is taking place between
cells belonging to two different radio access
technologies (RAT) or different radio access
modes, like FDD-WCDMA to TDDWCDMA. The most frequent case for the
first type is expected between WCDMA and
GSM/EDGE systems.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Handover Control


The following HO procedures can be
identified:
Hard handover (HHO), a category of HO
procedures, where all old radio links an MS
is using are released before the new radio
links are established. For real-time bearers
it means a short disconnection of the bearer,
for nonreal-time bearers HHO is lossless.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Handover Control


Soft Handover (SHO) is a category of HO
procedures where an MS always keeps at
least one radio link to the UTRAN. During
SHO an MS is simultaneously controlled by
two or more cells belonging to different BSs
of the same RNC (intra-RNC SHO) or
different RNCs (inter-RNC SHO).
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

Soft-Handover
simultaneous radio
link between MS and
different BTSs

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Soft-Handover
Advantages
SHO gain at cell border
Macrodiversity
Reduced Tx power (!)

Disadvantages
Code waste

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Macrodiversity - active set


Cell A

Ec/N
o

Cell B

Sign
al

Time margin
ADD threshold

marg
in

DROP
threshold

Cell C

Soft handover
region

Department of Communication Systems

Time

Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Soft Handover Control


SHO is a general feature in systems like
WCDMA, where neighboring cells are
operated on the same frequency.
When in connected mode, the MS
continuously measures serving and
neighboring cells (cells indicated by the
RNC) on the current carrier frequency.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Soft Handover Control


The MS compares the measurement results
with HO thresholds provided by the RNC,
and sends a measurement report back to the
RNC when the reporting criteria are
fulfilled.
SHO therefore is a mobile evaluated
handover.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Soft Handover Control


The decision algorithm of SHO is located in
the RNC.
Based on the measurement report received
from the mobile, the RNC orders the MS to
add or remove cells from its active set.
SHO is possible only on the same carrier.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Hard Handover Control


Inter-frequency HO (IF-HO) is a hard
handover between different WCDMA
carriers required to ensure HO path from
one cell to another cell in situations when
different carriers have been allocated to the
cells in question.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Hard Handover Control


HHO means that IF-HO causes temporary
disconnection of the radio access bearer and
is lossless for nonreal-time bearers.
IF-HO also enables HOs between separate
layers of a multi-layered cellular network,
for example, a network consisting of
macrocell and microcell, where the cell
layers are using different carriers.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Hard Handover Control

Micro cells

Macro cell
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Hard Handover Control


The HC of the RAN should support
following types of IF-HO:
Intra-BTS hard handover (to control load
between carriers)
Intra-RNC hard handover
Inter-RNC hard handover
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Hard Handover Control


Inter-system handover (IS-HO) is a
handover between (FDD-) WCDMA and a
neighbouring system using a different radio
access technique (RAT) or also within
WCDMA if the other system uses a
different radio access method, i.e., TDDWCDMA
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Hard Handover Control


IS-HO is required to complement the coverage
areas of WCDMA and a neighbouring system,
when the coverage area of WCDMA is limited.
When the coverage areas of WCDMA and the
neighbouring system overlap an IS-HO can
also be used to control the load between the
systems.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

RRM: Hard Handover Control


For example, speech connections can be
handed over to a neighbouring 2G system
and data connections can be handled within
the WCDMA system.
IS-HO is a hard handover, that is, an IS-HO
causes temporary disconnection of the radio
access bearer.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

QoS Inter-working
3GPP specification work
provides smooth interworking with the
GSM/EDGE networks
including common core
network, multimode
terminals, inter-system
handovers and harmonized
QoS parameters.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Congestion Control
In WCDMA it is important to keep the air
interface load under predefined thresholds
in order to meet the QoS targets.
Three different functionalities are part of
the congestion control:
Admission control (AC) handling all new
incoming traffic. It is checking, whether a
new packet can be admitted to the system.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

Congestion Control
Packet scheduling which is handling all the
nonreal-time traffic. Basically, a packet
scheduler is determining the time a packet
transmission is initiated and which bit rate is
used.
Load control, taking care of the situation that
system load has exceeded the threshold(s) and
corresponding counter measures.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

QoS Mechanisms
In the context of UMTS networks, Quality of
Service (QoS) refers to the collective effect of
service performances that determine the degree of
satisfaction of the end-user of the service.
The QoS architecture consists of all the UMTS
network functions that participate in providing the
end-user the appropriate service quality.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

QoS Mechanisms
The UMTS bearer services are categorized
into four traffic classes as shown in
following table.
The main distinguishing factor between
these classes is the delay sensitiveness of
the expected traffic.

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

QoS Mechanisms
TRAFFIC
CLASS

CONVERSATIONAL STREAMING
CLASS (RT)
CLASS (RT)

Characteristics Low delay


Preserves time relation
between packets

Preserves time
relation between
packets

Typical
Applications

Streaming media

Voice, highly intensive


games

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

QoS Mechanisms
TRAFFIC
CLASS

INTERACTIVE
CLASS

BACKGROUND
CLASS

Characteristics Request response


pattern
Preserves data
integrity

Best effort
Non-time critical data
Preserves data
integrity

Typical
Applications

Background
synchronisation,
downloads,etc

Web browsing

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

WCDMA RAN Evolution


Release 5 UMTS specifications contain
downlink packet data operation
enhancement, high-speed downlink packet
access (HSDPA) which utilizes Hybrid
ARQ, higher order modulation and Node B
(BS) scheduling for improving downlink
data spectral efficiency and for pushing bit
rates beyond 10 Mbps.
Department of Communication Systems
Lancaster University, UK

WCDMA RAN Evolution


WCDMA evolution for Release 6 and
further releases is continuing with the
following key areas being worked in 3GPP
standardisation:

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

WCDMA RAN Evolution


Enhanced uplink dedicated channel
Support for Multimedia Broadcast and
Multicast Service (MBMS)
Distributed architecture option that could
enable more efficient use of IP technology

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

3G Systems: Comparison
Parameters

CDMA2000

WCDMA

TD-SCDMA

Multiple Access

DS-CDMA

DS-CDMA

TDMA/DS-CDMA

Channel coding

Convolutional or
turbo codes

Convolutional, or
turbo

Convolutional, or
turbo

Spreading codes

Walsh

OVSF

OVSF

Modulation

QPSK

QPSK

QPSK/8PSK

Bandwidth

1.25*2/3.75*2 MHz

5*2MHz

1.6 MHz

Chip rate

1.2288/3.68Mcps

3.84 Mcps

1.28 Mcps

Frame length

20ms, 5ms

10 ms

10 ms

Maximum data
rate

2.4 Mbps

2 Mbps

2 Mbps

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK

Summary
UMTS is still in developing phase
Some features have been implemented, some are
still to come.
Is market there?
Further study: cdma2000
Further study: IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS)

Department of Communication Systems


Lancaster University, UK