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processes:

Constant volume processes

Constant pressure processes

Adiabatic: a process in which no heat is added or taken

away

Reversible: one in which no friction or other dissipative

losses occur

Isentropic: a process which is both adia-batic and

reversible

MAE 278

(1)

q de Pdv 0 Pdv de cv dT

q dh vdP 0vdP dh cP dT

Dividing de bydh

Pdv

vdP

c

P

cv

c dv

cv dP

P

cP P

cv v

Defining

( = constant 1.4 for air)

Substituting and dP

integrating:

P dP

V dv

dv

P

P1

P

v

P v

ln 2 ln 2 2 2

P1

v1 P1 v1

1 P

and since v , 2 2

P1 1

MAE 278

V1

(2)

results

RT

P2 2

P1 1

T2 1

T1

of thermodynamics

The physical principle is:

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed

q dh vdP 0

For adiabatic (or isentropic) flow

dP VdV

1

v ,

dh VdV 0

MAE 278

Energy Equation

Integrating this energy-based equation along a

streamline:

dh VdV 0

h2

h1

V2

dh VdV 0

V1

V2 V2

h2 h1 2 1 0

2

2

V12

V22

V2

h1

h2

h

CONSTANT

2

2

2

q dh vdP 0vdP dh cP dT

therefore h cPT

V12

V22

V2

cPT1

cPT2

cPT

CONSTANT

2

2

2

MAE 278

Equation Summary

A1V1 A2V2

V12

V22

P1

P2

2

2

1A1V1 2 A2V2

P2 2

P1 1

T2 1

BERNOULLIS EQUATION

ISENTROPIC RELATIONS

T1

V12

V22

cPT1

cPT2

2

2

P1 1RT1

P2 2RT2

ENERGY

EQUATION OF STATE

MAE 278

Sound Waves

Consider a wave moving at velocity, a:

One dimensional flow:

Apply continuity

1A1V1 2 A2V2

A1a d A2 a da

a d a da

a a ad da

da

a

d

MAE 278

Applying Eulers Equation (Momentum):

dp ada

da

dp

a

da

dp

a

d d a

dp

a

d

2

dp

d isentropic

p2 2

p1 1

p1

cons tan t

2 1

dp

d

p 1 p

d isentropic d

p2

dp

d isentropic

MAE 278

RT

Physical interpretation of speed of sound and

temperature relationship

Temperature is a measure of random molecular motion

transmitted by molecular collisions

MAE 278

Mach Number

Mach Number relates directed energy (kinetic energy) to

internal energy

VV

M

M a

a

Flow regimes

Transonic flow is the most difficult regime to analyze

MAE 278

Transonic Flow

THE LOCAL FLOW SPEEDS UP

OVER A CURVED SURFACE

M> 1

M < 1

Transonic flow is a mixed flow regime

It is partly subsonic and partly supersonic

MAE 278

10

A1

V2

V

A2 1

p1

1

1

V12 p2 V22

2

2

V22

2

p2 p1 V12

V1

A2

V

A1 2

MAE 278

VV2

2

22 pp1 pp2

1

2

A 2 2

1 1 A2 2

AA

1

11

Manometers

Widely used pressure instruments

Mercury:

845.6 lb/ft3

Water*: 62.43 lb/ft3

Alcohol*:

50.5 lb/ft3

*AT T = 0 C

MAE 278

12

Types of Pressure

Static Pressure

The force per unit area generated by ran-dom

molecular motions.

It exists even with the fluid at rest

Total Pressure

The force per unit area that would exist if the flow

were brought to rest isentropically

It is a thermodynamic property

Dynamic Pressure

The force per unit area in a flow due to density and

flow velocity

1

qq 1VV22

22

MAE 278

13

Pitot-Static Measurements

Pitot-static probe schematic:

FLOW WITH

VELOCITY V1

TOTAL

PRESSURE

MEASURED

HERE

p IS MEASURED HERE

DIFFERENTIAL

PRESSURE GAGE

PITOT TUBE

STATIC

PRESSURE

TOTAL

PRESSURE

MAE 278

14

Pitot-Static Installations

Pitot-static locations are different for each airplane

NF-104A

PITOT HEADS

P-40N

P-80A

MAE 278

15

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