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# Thermodynamic Processes

## So far, we have only considered two thermodynamic

processes:
Constant volume processes
Constant pressure processes

## Other important processes defined:

away
Reversible: one in which no friction or other dissipative
losses occur
Isentropic: a process which is both adia-batic and
reversible

MAE 278

## Isentropic Flow Relations

(1)

q de Pdv 0 Pdv de cv dT
q dh vdP 0vdP dh cP dT

Dividing de bydh
Pdv
vdP
c
P
cv

c dv
cv dP

P
cP P
cv v

Defining
( = constant 1.4 for air)
Substituting and dP
integrating:
P dP
V dv
dv
P

P1

P
v
P v
ln 2 ln 2 2 2
P1
v1 P1 v1
1 P
and since v , 2 2
P1 1

MAE 278

V1

(2)

## Combining the equation of state with the integration

results

RT

P2 2

P1 1

T2 1

T1

of thermodynamics
The physical principle is:
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed
q dh vdP 0
dP VdV

1
v ,

## Combining these two expressions, utilizing the fact that

dh VdV 0
MAE 278

Energy Equation
Integrating this energy-based equation along a
streamline:
dh VdV 0

h2

h1

V2

dh VdV 0
V1

V2 V2
h2 h1 2 1 0
2
2
V12
V22
V2
h1
h2
h
CONSTANT
2
2
2

## Recalling that adiabatic flow implies:

q dh vdP 0vdP dh cP dT
therefore h cPT

V12
V22
V2
cPT1
cPT2
cPT
CONSTANT
2
2
2

MAE 278

Equation Summary
A1V1 A2V2

## CONTINUITY EQUATION (INCOMPRESSIBLE)

V12
V22
P1
P2
2
2

1A1V1 2 A2V2
P2 2

P1 1

T2 1

BERNOULLIS EQUATION

## CONTINUITY EQUATION (COMPRESSIBLE)

ISENTROPIC RELATIONS

T1

V12
V22
cPT1
cPT2
2
2
P1 1RT1
P2 2RT2

ENERGY
EQUATION OF STATE
MAE 278

Sound Waves
Consider a wave moving at velocity, a:

## Make the wave stationary

One dimensional flow:
Apply continuity

1A1V1 2 A2V2
A1a d A2 a da
a d a da
da
a
d

MAE 278

## Speed of Sound (1)

Applying Eulers Equation (Momentum):

da

dp
a

da
dp
a

d d a

dp
a
d
2

dp

d isentropic

p2 2

p1 1

p1

cons tan t
2 1
dp
d
p 1 p

d isentropic d

p2

dp

d isentropic

MAE 278

RT

## Speed of Sound (2)

Physical interpretation of speed of sound and
temperature relationship
Temperature is a measure of random molecular motion

## Speed of sound is a superimposed, directed motion

transmitted by molecular collisions

MAE 278

Mach Number
Mach Number relates directed energy (kinetic energy) to
internal energy
VV
M
M a
a

Flow regimes

## Subsonic and supersonic flow are easy to analyze

Transonic flow is the most difficult regime to analyze
MAE 278

Transonic Flow
THE LOCAL FLOW SPEEDS UP
OVER A CURVED SURFACE
M> 1
M < 1

## Freestream flow is still subsonic

Transonic flow is a mixed flow regime
It is partly subsonic and partly supersonic
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A1
V2
V
A2 1
p1

1
1
V12 p2 V22
2
2

V22

2
p2 p1 V12

V1

A2
V
A1 2

## Substituting for V1, we get

MAE 278

VV2
2

22 pp1 pp2
1
2
A 2 2
1 1 A2 2
AA
1

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Manometers
Widely used pressure instruments

## Common manometer fluids

Mercury:
845.6 lb/ft3
Water*: 62.43 lb/ft3
Alcohol*:
50.5 lb/ft3

*AT T = 0 C

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Types of Pressure
Static Pressure
The force per unit area generated by ran-dom
molecular motions.
It exists even with the fluid at rest
Total Pressure
The force per unit area that would exist if the flow
were brought to rest isentropically
It is a thermodynamic property
Dynamic Pressure
The force per unit area in a flow due to density and
flow velocity
1
qq 1VV22
22

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Pitot-Static Measurements
Pitot-static probe schematic:
FLOW WITH
VELOCITY V1

TOTAL
PRESSURE
MEASURED
HERE

## STATIC PRESSURE ORIFICE;

p IS MEASURED HERE

DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE GAGE

PITOT TUBE

## Detail of typical pitot-static probe head:

STATIC
PRESSURE

TOTAL
PRESSURE

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Pitot-Static Installations
Pitot-static locations are different for each airplane
NF-104A