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Thermodynamic Processes

So far, we have only considered two thermodynamic


processes:
Constant volume processes
Constant pressure processes

Other important processes defined:


Adiabatic: a process in which no heat is added or taken
away
Reversible: one in which no friction or other dissipative
losses occur
Isentropic: a process which is both adia-batic and
reversible

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Isentropic Flow Relations

(1)

Adiabatic flow implies


q de Pdv 0 Pdv de cv dT
q dh vdP 0vdP dh cP dT

Dividing de bydh
Pdv
vdP
c
P
cv

c dv
cv dP

P
cP P
cv v

Defining
( = constant 1.4 for air)
Substituting and dP
integrating:
P dP
V dv
dv
P

P1

P
v
P v
ln 2 ln 2 2 2
P1
v1 P1 v1
1 P
and since v , 2 2
P1 1

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V1

Isentropic Flow Relations

(2)

Combining the equation of state with the integration


results

RT

P2 2

P1 1

T2 1

T1

Return to the energy balance expressed by the first law


of thermodynamics
The physical principle is:
Energy can neither be created nor destroyed
q dh vdP 0
For adiabatic (or isentropic) flow
dP VdV

Recalling eulers equation:


1
v ,

Combining these two expressions, utilizing the fact that


dh VdV 0
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Energy Equation
Integrating this energy-based equation along a
streamline:
dh VdV 0

h2

h1

V2

dh VdV 0
V1

V2 V2
h2 h1 2 1 0
2
2
V12
V22
V2
h1
h2
h
CONSTANT
2
2
2

Recalling that adiabatic flow implies:

q dh vdP 0vdP dh cP dT
therefore h cPT

V12
V22
V2
cPT1
cPT2
cPT
CONSTANT
2
2
2

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Equation Summary
A1V1 A2V2

CONTINUITY EQUATION (INCOMPRESSIBLE)

V12
V22
P1
P2
2
2

1A1V1 2 A2V2
P2 2

P1 1

T2 1

BERNOULLIS EQUATION

CONTINUITY EQUATION (COMPRESSIBLE)

ISENTROPIC RELATIONS

T1

V12
V22
cPT1
cPT2
2
2
P1 1RT1
P2 2RT2

ENERGY
EQUATION OF STATE
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Sound Waves
Consider a wave moving at velocity, a:

Make the wave stationary


One dimensional flow:
Apply continuity

1A1V1 2 A2V2
A1a d A2 a da
a d a da
a a ad da
da
a
d

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Speed of Sound (1)


Applying Eulers Equation (Momentum):
dp ada

da

dp
a

Substituting into the equation for a:


da
dp
a

d d a

dp
a
d
2

dp

d isentropic

For isentropic flow:


p2 2

p1 1

p1

cons tan t
2 1
dp
d
p 1 p

d isentropic d

p2

Substituting into a and using the equation of state:


dp

d isentropic

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RT

Speed of Sound (2)


Physical interpretation of speed of sound and
temperature relationship
Temperature is a measure of random molecular motion

Speed of sound is a superimposed, directed motion


transmitted by molecular collisions

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Mach Number
Mach Number relates directed energy (kinetic energy) to
internal energy
VV
M
M a
a

Flow regimes

Subsonic and supersonic flow are easy to analyze


Transonic flow is the most difficult regime to analyze
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Transonic Flow
THE LOCAL FLOW SPEEDS UP
OVER A CURVED SURFACE
M> 1
M < 1

Freestream flow is still subsonic


Transonic flow is a mixed flow regime
It is partly subsonic and partly supersonic
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Low Speed Tunnel

A1
V2
V
A2 1
p1

1
1
V12 p2 V22
2
2

Rearranging Bernoullis Equation


V22

2
p2 p1 V12

Solving the Continuity Equation for V1


V1

A2
V
A1 2

Substituting for V1, we get

MAE 278

VV2
2

22 pp1 pp2
1
2
A 2 2
1 1 A2 2
AA
1

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Manometers
Widely used pressure instruments

Common manometer fluids


Mercury:
845.6 lb/ft3
Water*: 62.43 lb/ft3
Alcohol*:
50.5 lb/ft3

*AT T = 0 C

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Types of Pressure
Static Pressure
The force per unit area generated by ran-dom
molecular motions.
It exists even with the fluid at rest
Total Pressure
The force per unit area that would exist if the flow
were brought to rest isentropically
It is a thermodynamic property
Dynamic Pressure
The force per unit area in a flow due to density and
flow velocity
1
qq 1VV22
22

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Pitot-Static Measurements
Pitot-static probe schematic:
FLOW WITH
VELOCITY V1

TOTAL
PRESSURE
MEASURED
HERE

STATIC PRESSURE ORIFICE;


p IS MEASURED HERE

DIFFERENTIAL
PRESSURE GAGE

PITOT TUBE

Detail of typical pitot-static probe head:


STATIC
PRESSURE

TOTAL
PRESSURE

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Pitot-Static Installations
Pitot-static locations are different for each airplane
NF-104A
PITOT HEADS

P-40N

P-80A

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