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FUEL SYSTEM

COMPONENTS

Some of the components of the fuel


system are

Fuel Tanks
Fuel Pumps
Filtering Units
Valves
Lines and fittings
Primers and
Indicators

FUEL TANKS
The

location, size, shape and


construction of fuel tanks varies with
the size, type and intended use of
the aircraft

Purpose

Fuel storage

Requirements
Construction-

material should not react with fuel


Aluminum alloy, tern plate, fuel resistant
synthetic rubber, plastics and stainless steel
are used.

Must have provision for inspection

Pressure

generally required to withstand 3.5


p.s.i. without failure during emergency
landing
Inertia

forces

4.5g DW, 2.0g UW, 9.0g FW, 1.5g SW


(for fuel tanks within the fuselage)

Sump with drain

to collect sediment and water and to drain


trapped fuel after defueling
- 0.1% of tank capacity or 1/16 gallons
whichever is greater

Expansion space-

2% of the tank capacity

Filler connection-

designed to drain spilled fuel clear of the


airplane
Should provide a tight seal

Marking
-

The word fuel


Minimum grade of fuel
Tank capacity

Capacity
- total useable quantity for non transport
aircraft
- Not less than for hour of operation at MCP

- transport
- determined by the manufacturer.

Types
1. Removable- metal (built up) or rubber
2. Non removable integral

Bladder type
Non self-sealing
Depends on the aircraft structure to
carry weight of the fuel
Is made of rubber or nylon
Cells are slightly larger than the cavity

Integral (wet wing)


Are built into the wing structure
Integral part of the wing
Used on large transport aircraft
The seams, fasteners, and access doors
are sealed by fluid tight rivets and
sealants

Parts of the fuel tank

Baffle Plates
To prevent sudden fuel surges from
changes in attitude of the aircraft

2. Baffle Plate check valves


(flapper valves)
Hinged valves, which open inboard to
prevent fuel flowing away from the
boost pumps
Free acting and installed at the bottom
of the ribs

Fuel Scavenge System


Moves

the fuel in the tanks to


prevent water stratification and
growth of microorganisms
Includes jet (ejector) pumps to move
fuel
Also used for fuel transfer

4. Filler neck with scupper and


drain line
Located in a recessed well
The scupper prevents overflowing fuel from
entering the wings or fuselage
Fuel caps have locking mechanism to prevent
accidental loss during flight

5. Drain Valve

To drain water and sediment and drain


trapped fuel after defueling
Quick drain valves are used to drain the
system before flight

Venting System

To maintain atmospheric pressure


(equalize pressure)
May include a vent port, vent lines, surge
tank, vent scoop, and fuel vent float valves
The float valves prevent fuel from entering
the vent system
The surge tank drains fuel through a check
valve to the reserve Tanks

Fuel filter
Purpose

Prevent foreign matter from entering the


system
Trap small amounts of water (lowest
point)

Parts of the strainer


(gasocolator)

Cast metal cover top


Glass bowl
Filter element
Quick drain valve

bypass valve is used to allow fuel


flow during strainer failure
By pass warning system indicates
that the strainer is bypassing fuel

Valves
Fuel

shut off valves


Fuel selector valves
Manifold valves
Cross feed valves
Check valves
Drain valves

Purpose
To

shut of fuel flow


To select tank and direct fuel flow
For cross feed
For fuel transfer

Requirements
Positive

and quick acting


Controls within the rich of the cockpit
crew
Means to guard from the inadvertent
operation
No shut off valve should be located
on the engine side of the firewall

Must

by

be designed to be un affected

o Accelerated flight
o Vibration and gravity
Supported

to be unaffected by the
loads of its operation

Operation
Manual
Electrical

Manual override-provides manual means


of opening and closing the valve

1.Poppet
has an individual poppet valve at
each inlet port
- A cam and a yoke on the same shaft
open the poppet valve as the yoke is
turned

2. Conehas a cone, which fits into a housing


- The cone is rotated to align openings
on the cone with openings on the
housing to allow fuel flow to the
desired director
-

3. Discsimilar to the cone


- Has a rotor which fits into a
cylindrical housing
-

An indexing mechanism is used to


give a positive feel of the selected
position and

Combination fuel unit


Combines

the functions of fuel


strainer, and fuel boost pump
Used on some light aircraft

FUEL PUMPS
Requirements
Reciprocating Engines
- At least one main pump if pressure
fed

Turbine engines
One main pump for each engine
- Independent power supply
- Bypass valve
Emergency pump with independent
power supply from the main pump
Means to indicate malfunction if both
operate continuously
-

Classification

Based on purpose

Main
Auxiliary
Based on working principle

Vane type
Plunger type
Diaphragm
Gear
Centrifugal
Multi stage

Based on power source


Electrically driven
Engine driven
Hand operated

Vane type
A rotor with sliding vanes is installed
in a liner
Axis of rotation of the rotor is
eccentric with the axis of rotation of
the liner
Rotation of the rotor crates high and
low-pressure areas to pump fuel
through the outlet port
Positive displacement (needs relief
valve to relieve excess pressure)

Wobble (hand pump)

Is used on light aircraft


Has chambers, flappers valves, blades and
drilled passage ways
Movement of the blade creates high and
low pressure areas in the chambers to
force and pump fuel
Flapper valves prevents backflow

Fuel boost pump


Can

be electrically driven or
manually operated
Is used for starting, takeoff, climb
and during engine driven pump
failure
Should deliver the same amount of
fuel as the engine driven pump

Also used
To transfer fuel from auxiliary tanks
to the main tanks
- To prevent fuel from boiling at high
altitudes at the suction side of the
engine driven pump
- If centrifugal type to remove air from
the fuel
- Can be vane type or centrifugal
-

Engine driven pump


Purpose
Delivers continuous supply of fuel at
the proper pressure at all times
during engine operation
Is usually vane type
Mounted on the accessory section of
the engine
The fuel is used as a lubricant

A spring-loaded relief valve is used to


relief excess pressure
Increasing or decreasing the spring
tension adjusts fuel pressure
The Chamber above the relief valve is
vented to the atmosphere or carburetor
inlet pressure to compensate for changes
in atmospheric pressure (altitude)
A bypass valve is used for emergency

Has two modes of operation


Pressure delivery
The pump delivers fuel to the
engines at constant pressure and
excess pressure is relieved through
the relief valve

Bypass flow
When

the engine driven pump fails or


during emergency and
Starting the pressure of the fuel
upstream of the pump opens the
bypass valve allowing fuel flow to the
engines

Lines and Fittings


Are used to connect the components
in the system
Aluminum alloy tubing, fuel resistant
synthetic rubber and Teflon are
widely used

Requirements
Should be supported at regular intervals
Sharp and vertical bends should be
avoided
Metal lines should be electrically bonded
Flexible hose should be used to connect
a stationary unit with a unit or with a
unit under vibration

Drains
Requirements
Should be provided to drain the entire fuel
system with the aircraft normal ground attitude
Located to discharge clear of all parts of the
aircraft
Manual or automatic means for positive locking
A readily accessible drain valve, which can be
opened and closed readily
Located or protected to prevent fuel spillage in
the event of landing with landing gear retracted

Primers and Priming system

Non- fuel injected reciprocating engines


must be primed before Starting- to charge
or prime the cylinders with raw fuel
Usually draws fuel from the carburetor
inlet bowl or strainer, and directs the fuel
to the distributor valve, which distributes
fuel to the cylinders

Oil dilution system

The oil system is diluted with fuel for easy


starting in cold weather at the end of a
flight before shut down
The fuel vaporizes through the oil system
breathers during engine operation
Includes an oil dilution solenoid valve
which when opened allows fuel to flow into
the oil system

Fuel system indication


Required indications are
Fuel quantity
Rate of fuel flow
Fuel pressure and
Fuel temperature

Fuel flow meter


Indicates

the rate of fuel


consumption in gallons per hour or
pound per hour includes
A transmitter located in the fuel line
An indicator located in the cockpit

The transmitter can be


1.Vane type
2.Mss flow rate type (impeller and
turbine)

Vane type
Uses a single movable vane located in the
fuel line
The movement of the vane that is
proportional to the fuel flow is linked to a
synchro unit, which generates electrical
signals
The signals are transmitted to the
indicator electrically

Mass flow rate type


(impeller and turbine)

Uses an impeller driven by a constant speed


electric motor and a turbine mounted in the
fuel line
The impeller imparts an angular velocity to the
fuel flow perpendicular to the direction of fuel
flow
The angular momentum of the fuel is changed
to torque in the turbine
Restraining springs oppose the torque of the
turbine to produce a deflection proportional to
mass flow rate
The deflection is transmitted to the indicator by
a synchro system

Fuel Pressure Gage


Is required to determine
1. Proper operation of the system
2. Power output of the engine
Measures pressure of the fuel
entering the carburetor
Most are differential pressure
indicators

Fuel Pressure Warning


Employed

to warn the pilot the


possible danger of allowing the fuel
supply in one tank to become
exhausted before the selector valve
is switched to another tank
Consists of a pressure sensitive
mechanism and a warning lamp

Indicates the difference between the fuel


pressure entering the carburetor and the
air pressure at the carburetor air inlet
A restrictor at the carburetor end of the
fuel gauge line dampens pressure
pulsations, which causes pointer
oscillation.

Valve in transit Indicator


For

cross feed and line valves


The indicator light comes on when
the valve is in motion or an
intermediate position.

Fuel Temperature
indicator

To determine the danger or


formation of ice crystals in the fuel

Fuel quantity

to determine quantity of fuel remaining in


the fuel tanks

Types

Sight glass
Mechanical (direct reading)
Electrical
Electronic
Bayonet

Sight glass
Is

the simplest
Is a plastic or glass tube to view the
fuel level

Mechanical
Employs

a float resting on the fuel


Position of the float is transmitted to
the indicator by a mechanical linkage

CommandButton1

Electrical
Also employs a float
The position of the float is transmitted to
the indicator by a synchro unit
The synchro unit generates electrical
signals
Advantages
The indicator can be located at any
distance from the tanks

Electronic

The transmitter is capacitor (condenser)


The capacitance of the condenser varies with the
fuel quantity
The dielectric is the fuel and fuel vapor air
mixture above the fuel
The capacitance of the tank unit is compared with
a reference capacitor in a rebalance type bridge
circuit
The rebalanced signal is amplified and drives a
phase discriminating motor (the signal can also
be fed to a computer)

The

motor positions the pointer of


the indicator by a mechanical linkage

Continue

stop

Bayonet Type
Drip gauge
A hollow tube mounted at the
bottom of the fuel tank
It is unlocked and pulled down until
fuel begins to drip
The reading obtained is sometimes
checked with a table
1.

continue

stop

Magnetic
drip less
gauge

2. Sight Gauge
Is a long Lucite rod protected by a calibrated
tube which terminates at the top in an exposed
quartz tip
The quartz tip reflects light if above the fuel
The tip can be chisel shaped or cone shaped
The smallest perceptible size of the reflected light
is used to determine the level of fuel in the tanks

Sight gauge
stop

start

Multi-Engine fuel feed


systems

Engine fuel systems must be


interconnected to feed fuel from the
various tanks to any engine
Fuel supply of an inoperative engine must
be available to the other
Fuel supply of an inoperative engine must
be available to the other

Cross Feed System


The fuel system are interconnected through a
cross feed valve
2. Manifold system
Is a variation of the cross feed system
The fuel tanks are connected to a common
manifold
Advantages
Flexibility (fuel is available for an engine from
any tank)
All tanks could be serviced at the same time
from a single point
1.
-

Fuel dumping system (fuel


jettisoning)

Is required on transport category and


general aviation aircraft if the maximum
take off weight is greater than 105% of
landing weight to bring the weight of the
aircraft down to certified landing weight.
If the landing weight is less than 95% of
the max-take of weight

Requirements

Within 10 minutes

15 minutes

for general aviation


transport category

Rate

1 % of maximum take of weight per minute


Not less than 10 min.

System

free of fire hazard

Discharge

Fumes

clear of any part of the airplane


must not enter the airplane structure

Automatic shutoff (dump limit switches)

Fuel remaining
Reciprocating

engines

fuel for 45 minutes of flight at MCP


(maximum continuous power)
Turbine

engines-

fuel for take off and landing and fuel for


45 minutes of flight

The system includes

Lines
Valves
Dump chutes and
Chute operating mechanisms
Manual
Electrical

Fuel

is dumped through a common


manifold in each wing
Divided into two separate
independent systems for lateral
stability

Pressure fueling systems


Distributes

fuel under pressure to the


fuel tanks through a system of
fueling lines and valves

Components

Fueling manifold-

distribution center of the system

Fueling receptacle

receives fueling hose nozzles

Fueling manifold shut off valve

controls distribution to all of the tanks

Fueling level control pilot valve

limits the amount of fuel that can be pumped into a tank

Fueling preset switches

connect the system to quantity indicators to control the


fueling operation

Restricting orifice plates

limits maximum pressure of fueling

Fueling Aircraft
Is

filling the fuel tanks with fuel


Can be
Over wing (gravity)
Under wing (pressure)

Pressure fueling has the


advantages of
Reduced

fueling time
Reduced fire hazard
Reduced fuel contamination
Strict fire precautions should be
adhered
The fueling nozzle, the fueling truck
and the aircraft should be grounded

Fueling Precautions and


Procedures
Provide Fire extinguishers

Place fueling Vehicle


as far as possible from the aircraft
parallel to the wings
upwind the aircraft
Determine Type and grade of fuel
Place all electrical equipment off.
No objects in breast pockets.
Use Clean equipment
No matches and lighters
No direct skin contact with fuel
Ground the aircraft and fueling truck to a common
ground ;nozzle to the aircraft.

Over Wing
Fueling

Pressure fueling

Pressure fueling is used on many late-model aircraft.


sometimes referred as single-point or underwing
fueling.
advantages

reduces the time required to service large aircraft.


It eliminates aircraft skin damage
Eliminates hazards to personnel
reduces the chances for fuel contamination.
Also reduces the chance of static electricity igniting
fuel vapors.

fewer advantages of a pressure fueling system


in light aircraft.

Most pressure fueling systems consist of a

pressure fueling hose


panel of controls and
gages

fueling manifold is accessible near a wingtip


or under the wing near the wing root.
Fueling and defueling procedures are
normally placarded on the fueling control
panel access door.

Pressure Fueling procedures


Move

the aircraft to an open area


Provide fire extinguishers
Provide a supply of inert gases
Ground the aircraft
Remove sources of ignition
Disconnect or remove the battery
Use flame proof electrical equipment

Defueling Aircraft
Pressure

defueling
Suction defueling

Defueling

Is required to make repairs and inspecting of the


fuel tanks and fuel lines
Procedures are usually given on maintenance
manuals the following general rules should be
followed

Move the aircraft to an open area


Provide fire extinguishers
Provide supply of inert gasses
Ground the air craft
Use spark proof tools
Disconnect or remove the battery
Use only approved electrical equipment
Dont spill fuel on the ground

General fuel system


inspection

Preflight
Check quantity of fuel
Drain

2.25 hour
Check leakage, drain main strainer
Check security of lines and fittings

3.100 hour

complete examination of the fuel system


Drain
Check lines and fittings for general condition
Inspect bottom of tanks for growth of
microorganisms
Check the vent system for obstruction
Inspect and check shut off and selector valves for
effectiveness accuracy
Inspect and check gauges

Fuel leak classification


(integral tanks)

The area the fuel leak moistens within 30


minutes is taken as a standard
Slow seep less than inch in diameter
Sleep between and 1 inches in diameter
Heavy seep between 1 and 3 inches in
diameter
Running leak- a running or dripping leak

Repair of fuel tanks


The

fuel tanks should be purged


before repair by using CO2 or
nitrogen

Follow

manufacturer instructions

Bladder type fuel cells


Can

be repaired by cementing a
piece of synthetic rubber on the
damaged area by an approved
cement after thoroughly cleaning
and buffing the damage area

Built up metal tanks


Can

be repaired by soldering or
welding
Steam for a minimum of 8 hours
before welding
Welding flux can be removed by a
mild solution of nitric and sulfuric
acid
Make a pressure check

Integral tanks
Can be repaired by
Replacing loose fasteners
Applying sealants
Making approved skin repairs