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Australia

1970s
By Sarah, Rebecca, Julia,
Ella, Ben and Sharon

International Events
US

ends trade embargo agaist China.(04-14-1971)

Richard

Nixonbecame first American president to


visit China and opened the communist nation to
American trade and diplomatic relations.

This

isolated the Soviet Union. And caused the Soviets


to bargain with the United States. Both sides entered
into a new era of agreement and peaceful coexistence
known as Dtente.

Nixons Speech in China


http
://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yj83G0Vbo
tw

International Events

The Munich Massacre (1972):Arab murdered the 1972


Israeli Olympic team. Terrorists had never committed mass
murder. This signalled the birth of the scourge of terrorism.

The Yom Kippur War (1973):Egypt and Syria launched a


surprise attack on Israel.
Arabs hoped to end Israels existence.

the Arab armies made dramatic progress, however, Israel


rallied to defeat them once again.

the U.S. and U.S.S.R. almost came to blows over the


conflict.. The Soviets threatened intervention on the Arab
side. Henry Kissinger made it known, that Soviet
intervention meant World War III.

International Events

India successfully tests an atomic bomb.(05-18-1974)

Vietnam War ends (1975)

Pol Pot takes over Cambodia (1975)

Israeli airborne commandos attack Uganda'sEntebbeAirport and free 103


hostages held by pro-Palestinian hijackers of Air France plane; one Israeli and
several Ugandan soldiers killed in raid(July 4 1976)

Elvis Presley found dead (1977)

First test-tube baby born (1978)

Margaret Thatcher elected first female Prime Minister of Britain(1979)

Vietnam occupied Cambodian capital Phnom Penh, Pol Pot regim collapsed.(0107-1979)

Australian Events
Withdrawal

from Vietnam (1972): Many Australian


troops had been conscripted. In 1972, Australia decided to
withdraw Australia from the Vietnam war. This was because
in the 70s, the view about the Vietnam war became
negative

Whitlam

era (1972-1975): Australia wanted a change in


government after the 23 consecutive years of Labour rule.
The slogan was Its Time highlighting that Australia had
the chance to finally move into a new and more exciting
time in its history.
The

Whitlam government made dramatic changes to issues


relating to health, education, immigration, Indigenous rights,
foreign affairs, and industrial relations.

Gender Equality
The Whitlam government promoted gender equality
and equal opportunities for women.
Whitlam government granted power to the Conciliation
and Arbitration Commission, in 1974, to replace the
separation of male and female wages.
The government also helped women in issues relating
to their traditional roles
single mothers given allowance to help them support
their children, removal of sales tax on the
contraceptive pill
A no-fault divorce principle underlying theFamily Law
Act 1975(Cwlth) was put in place to help remove the
negative social connotations that Australian society
had attached to divorced women.
Changing view on women, I am Woman

I am Woman
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=MUBnxqEVKlk

Aboriginal Equality
The

Whitlam government also created legislation


that will legislate to give Aborigines land rights.
One of the legislations made was the policy
ofself-determination. The government
established funds to enhance the Northern and
Central Land Councils in order for them to gain
legal support for land rights claims.
The Gurindji people had some of their land rights
denied in the Gove Lands right decision which
Whitlam formally returned to them

Aboriginal Equality
Funding

for Aboriginal affairs in the 70s increased


from the $23 million budget - $141 million.
Whitlam established Federal Ministry for Aboriginal
Affairs and the National Aboriginal Consultative
Committee (NACC) to advise the minister.
granted Aborigines government permission to
leave Australia, by repealing Section 64 of the old
Migration Act 1958.
Following this, TheRacial Discrimination Act
1975(Cwlth), Australia's first human rights
legislation, came into practice on 11 June 1975.

Multiculturalism
What

remained of the White Australia policy was abolished. This opened up an


opportunity for a new immigration policy and improved relationships with
Australia's Asian neighbours.

Previously

the Commonwealth Government had given preference to tourists


from northern Europe and North America, however this was changed so that
all people applying for tourist visas to visit Australia did so on equal terms.

Changes

to theCitizenship Act were made so that immigrants from the United


Kingdom could no longer take precedence over Asians and other Europeans
when applying for citizenship.

Through

the media, the government also encouraged support for migrants,


the establishment of migrant education centres and the establishment of
multilingual welfare officers and interpreters for emergency telephone calls.

Inventions

1970s technology

In 1970 the floppy disk was invented by Alan Shugart. The


floppy disk was the common data storage device at the time
before CDs replaced them.

Wang Laboratories invented the first word processor in 1971


called the Wang 1200. Designed by Harold Koplow this was
much faster than the old typewriter. This program would form
the basis of programs like Microsoft word that we use today.

The First email was sent by Ray Tomlinson

Intel brought out the first microprocessor in 1971. It started the


evolution of the home computer, up until this time most
computers were only in the hands of scientists and a few
members of the public.

Fashion
The

1970s was a period of fashion


innovation.
Began with a continuation of the
androgynous hippie look from the late 60s.
Trends changed include platform shoes,
flared jeans, three-piece suits and rayon or
jersey wrap dresses for women. The disco
look lasted until it was gradually replaced
by punk fashion and straight, cigarettelegged jeans.

Fashion Early-Mid 1970s


The

decade began how the previous decade had ended, with


the hippie look.
First noticeable change in this decade was the introduction of
two new skirt lengths into popular culture. Previously only
mini skirts were popular, however mid-calf-length skirts and
dresses) as well as ankle-length became popular
In 1971 very short tight-fitting shorts called hot pants were a
fashion craze for girls and young women. Throughout this
period tight, flared bottom trousers were popular for both
sexes.
Another trend for both sexes in this period was the fitted
blazer, which tended to flare at the hip.
Crop tops and high-waisted bottoms were also a popular
choice for women as the decade progressed and garments
showing off womens figures became popular.
Fabrics like velvet suede, leather and wool began to come
back as widely used fabrics for fashion.

Late 1970s
Clothing

became very fluid and unstructured during this time.


With the popularity of disco and availability and range of manmade fabrics, a drastic change occurred in mainstream fashion,
All styles of clothing were affected by disco, especially for men.
Stylish three-piece suits, bold neckties, jumpsuits, spandex pants,
tube tops and slit skirts became popular.
Punk fashion also became popular as the decade neared its close.
Punk at its heart in terms of fashion was based off the concept of
creation through disorder.
Safety pins became nose and ear jewellery, rubber fetishwear was
subverted to become daywear, and images of mass murderers,
rapists, and criminals were elevated to iconographic status.
Pieces like ripped jeans, torn t-shirts, scrappy haircuts, worn and
torn leather jackets became popularized by bands like The Sex
Pistols.

Music 1970s
In 1973, the Australian Broadcasting Control Board code of practice
that required radio stations to ensure that 10 percent of the music
they broadcast was Australian
Programmes such as 'countdown' and '2JJ provided exposure to
emerging Australian Bands like Sherbet and Skyhooks and artists like
John Paul Young and Olivia Newton-John
A distinctive 'Australian pub rock' style of music emerged in the 1970s
- simple rhythms and melodies and heavy electric guitars and drums
Made famous by acts like Cold Chisel and Midnight Oil In January 1972
Australia held its first ever outdoor music festival in Sunbury, near
Melbourne. It attracted around 30 000 people and featured many local
musicians, as well as various big-name overseas acts.
The 1970s also brought about a fad of disco music
Popular American disco artists include The Jackson 5 and Donna
Summer. The disco-themed films like Saturday Night Fever also helped
popularise disco culture. This was also characterised by stupid
hairdos.

Saturday Night Fever


Trailer
http://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=bq4ZMKqWk80

Australian Entertainment
In the 1970s the film industry starting growing
hugely as Australia began filming their own movies
in the popular Australian settings
Due to the provided funds and finances from the
Australian government the Australian Film, Television
and Radio School (AFTRS) opened producing 400
films in Australia between 1979 and 1985.
These includedPicnic at Hanging Rock(1975)
andBreaker Morant(1979). The local films in the 70s
became very popular with the Australian audiences.

Australian Entertainment
The 70s were full of family movies. Also with
introduction of the R rating in the late 60s there
was the new production of adult- oriented films
with clear subject matters aimed at the older
Australian audiences.
The genres of horror classics (Exorcist) , sci-fi
(Star Wars and Close Encounters) Crime and
Polices (The Godfather and The French Connection)
and the 70s Musicals (Cabaret and Saturday Night
Fever) where extremely popular at the time and
left the 1970s with unforgettable movie names.

Australian Entertainment

1970s TV was also Family friendly like the movies of


time, situation comedies (sitcoms) that were suitable
for all ages being the mot popular and best shows of
the time. Most sitcoms aired for 30mins between 8
and 9 pm before the childrens bedtime. The 70s
sitcoms subject matters were mostly clean with
some including touchy subject matters. There were
also many dramas airing at the time, popular
because of the suspense and not all being
predictable. Such as medical shows, cop and
detective shows and a couple popular westerns
continuing from the 60s.