YOGA AND MEDITATION

Dr. Ananth Ram Sharma
MD Panchakarma, PhD Scholar

Presented at: Amrita School of Engineering Amritapuri

Department of Panchakarma Amrita School of Ayurveda

Markatasya Surapaanam Madhye Vrushchika Damshanam Tanmadhye Bhoota Sancharam Yadvaa Thadvaa Bhavishyathi

‡ Monkey : Mind (active by its own nature) ‡ Wine: Desire ‡ Scorpion: Jealousy ‡ Demon: Pride

¶MIND·

MANYATE JNAYATE

³Mana Eva Manushyanaam Karanam Bhandha Mokshayo´

‡ Where is Mind ‡ Functions of Mind ‡ Nature of Mind ‡ Whether it can be controlled

´Yogah Chittavr tti Nirodhahµ

‡ Restriction to the sense organs to its Vishaya¶s ‡ Vishaya Grahana should be obsturcted

HISTORY
‡ The ancient tradition of yoga and meditation began in Indian prehistory as a system of mental, physical and spiritual exercises. ‡ In approximately 500BC the physician and sage Patanjali formalized this tradition into a science.

PATAN ALI'S ASHTANGA YOGA

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Yama (Principles) Niyama (Personal Disciplines) Asana (Yoga Positions or Yogic Postures) Pranayama (Yogic Breathing) Pratyhara (withdrawal of Senses) Dharana (Concentration on Object) Dhyan (Meditation) Samadhi (Salvation)

VARIOUS YOGIC APPROACHES
‡ Hatha Yoga ‡ Mantra Yoga ‡ Bhakti Yoga ‡ Karma Yoga ‡ Jnana yoga ‡ Kriya Yoga ‡ Raja Yoga ‡ Kundalini yoga

HATHA YOGA
‡ The term Hatha oga - Asana (postures). ‡ The syllable 'ha' denotes the pranic (vital) force governing the physical body and 'tha' denotes the chitta (mental) force thus making Hatha oga a catalyst to an a akening of the t o energies that govern our lives. ‡ Hatha oga harmonize and purify the body systems and focus the mind in preparation for more advanced chakra and kundalini practices

MANTRA YOGA
‡ Mantra Yoga has its origin in Vedic Sciences and also in Tantra, in act all the verses in Vedas are called mantras, it is said that any person who can chant or sing Vedas can achieve the ultimate salvation

BHAKTI YOGA
‡ Bhakti is a Yoga o devotion or complete aith. This aith is generally in the God or supreme consciousness in any o the orms.

KARMA YOGA
‡ Karma Yoga is a path o devotion to the work. One looses his identity while working, only sel less work remains.

JNANA YOGA
‡ Jnana Yoga is the process o converting intellectual knowledge into practical wisdom. ‡ It is a discovery o human dharma in relation to nature and the universe. ‡ Jnana Yoga is described by tradition as a means to obtain the highest meditative state and inner knowledge.

KRIYA YOGA
‡ The word kriya means activity or movement and re ers to the activity or movement o consciousness. Kriya also re ers to a type o practical or preliminary practice leading to total union, the inal result o practice. Kriya yoga does not curb mental luctuations but purposely creates activity and awakening in consciousness. In this way all aculties are harmonized and lower into their ullest potential.

RAJA YOGA
‡ Raja Yoga is the system o yoga -Sage Patanjali. ‡ Comprehensive yoga system which deals with the re inement o human behavior and personality through the practice o the Yamas (restraint) and Niyamas (disciplines); attainment o physical health and vitality through sanas (postures) and Pranayamas

‡ (Pranic breathing techniques); management o mental and emotional con licts and development o awareness and concentration through Pratyahara (sensory withdrawal) and Dharana (concentration); and developing the creative aspect o consciousness or transcendental awareness through Dhyana (meditation) and Samadhi (absorption in the universal identity).

SWARA YOGA
‡ Swara is -sound or note. ‡ It is also a continuous low o air through one nostril. ‡ Realization o cosmic consciousness through control and manipulation o breath. ‡ Pranayama is only related to control o breath. ‡ In swara yoga, you will ind association o breath in relation to activities o sun, moon, various seasons, physical and mental conditions o individuals etc.

KUNDALINI YOGA
Kundalini Yoga or Transcendental Yoga ‡ This system of Yoga is concerned with awakening of the psychic centers or chakras, which exists in every individual. ‡ Soul is covered by 5 coverings i.e. ,
1.Annamayakoshas 2.Pranyamakoshas, 3.Manmomyakoshas, 4.Bhudhinikoshas or Janamayakoshas, 5.Anandyamakoshas.

MADITATION
‡ Meditation is not job or duty ‡ Many people not able to sit or meditation or long period ‡ Mind/ soul and involvement in rt ‡ Meditation is a state o concentration o mind leading to higher states o awareness resulting in to heightened perceptions.

TECHNIQUES
‡ Concentration on an external point, symbol, image etc ‡ Concentration on an internal point, symbol, image etc ‡ Concentration on universal existence

PHYSIOLOGY
‡ Padmasana, Siddhasana, Swastikasana, Bhadrasana and Simhasana as meditative positions. ‡ They are the best Asanas - other asanas are to prepare the body and mind to sit in these positions for longer duration. ‡ Sitting postures with legs crossed in different ways, offering a firm triangular base to the spine. ‡ The spine is erect and all the body parts are relaxed. Hands in Dhyan Mudra or Chin mudra resting on knees comfortably.

Dhyana/ Chin mudra helps the mind become relaxed and attain concentration

‡ Spine is erect which allows all the physiological activities go on normally. Its balance posture for digestive organs, heart and lungs they function at optimum level resulting in increased efficiency and reduced stress. ‡ To maintain the balance in these positions, brain and other parts (hypothalamus, pyramidal tract, extra pyramidal tracts, cochlea, neuro-muscular junctions) have to work less. ‡ Gravity & Anti gravity muscles need not work hard to maintain the pose.. Closing the eyes is also possible without loosing the balance. ‡ Abdominal muscles, diaphragm and muscles in the chest are stressed to the minimum extent. Production of CO2 is minimized so that process of breathing is minimized. ‡

These positions are such that the brain and nervous system has minimal stress, so that mind can be peaceful and relaxed.

‡ The mind remains alert but relaxed. ‡ Only the supine position or lying down position is more relaxed than the meditative positions. ‡ The pelvic region gets the rich supply of blood; it may result in toning up of sacral and coccygeal nerves. (Kundalini) ‡ The blood from the legs can easily reach heart reducing the efforts of heart and lungs. ‡ Yoga psycho-physiology says that erect spine position offers least resistance to the Pranic energy traveling up to the brain which is awakened through the meditation. ‡ One should start practicing with basic Asanas for few minutes and then carefully learn the advance positions like Padmasana, Siddahasana, Swastikasana etc. There is always a danger of damaging your knees if you stress your self too much.

BENEFITS OF YOGA
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Reduce stress and enhances relaxation Boosts physical strength, stamina and flexibility Bestows powers of concentration and self control Inculcates impulse Control Helps in rehabilitation of old and new injuries Intensifies tolerance to pain & enhancing mental clarity Boosts functioning of the immune system Enhances posture and muscle tone Improves blood circulation Results in healthy, glowing skin Cleanses and improves overall organ functioning Bestows peace of mind and positive outlook to life Infuses a sense of balance and internal harmony

RESEARCH
‡ Psycho somatic Disorders ‡ Dr. U.C. Rai¶s research on Sahaja Yoga ‡ Lack of proper parameters ‡ A great deal of meditation research has occurred over the last fifty years with mixed results

DIFFERENT STUDIES
‡ Effects of yoga program on quality of life and affect in early breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: a randomized controlled trial. ‡ Effect of integrated yoga on stress and heart rate variability in pregnant women ‡ Central and autonomic nervous system interaction is altered by short-term meditation.

‡ Physiological patterns during practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique compared with patterns while reading Sanskrit and a modern language. ‡ Yoga based guided relaxation reduces sympathetic activity in subjects based on baseline levels. ‡ Oxygen consumption and respiration following two yoga relaxation techniques

TO SUMMARIZE
‡ Yoga and meditation should have very high medical values. ‡ More than exercise they have definite role over the mind and body. ‡ These practices help us to improve the productivity.

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