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COURSE OBJECTIVE

Students will get an overview of

aviation mathematics as per

The requirement of regulatory bodies

The application of mathematical concepts

the field

Duration

40 hours theory

Delivery

Lecture discussion

Class exercise

Reading and class exercises

Home take exams/exercises

COURSE CONTENT

Arithmetic

Algebra

Geometry

Trigonometry

Practical problems on charts and

graphs

REFERENCES

Ac 65 9A, Airframe and Powerplant

Series, General Handbook

Technical Mathematics with Calculus

Shop Mathematics

EVALUATION

Class tests

Assignments

Final test

Passing mark

70%

DISCIPLINE

Punctuality

Good appearance

I'D. cards in proper place

School regualtion

Arithmetic

Objective

Addition, subtraction, multiplication and

division of:

Fractions

Decimals

System

Calculation of ratio, average and percentage

Application of logarithms and indices

Basic Operations

Addition +

Subtraction Multiplication x () *

Division ,/,

Grouping signs

Terms

Number

Sum

Minuend

Subtrahend

Difference

Multiplicand

Multiplier

Product

Terms (Contd.)

Dividend

Minuend

Divisor

Quotient Multiplicand

Remainder Dividend

Digits

Denominator

Numerator

Subtrahend

5 2 =3

7 x 3 = 21

27 / 5 = 5

and 2

Difference

Multiplier

Product

Quotient

Divisor

Remainder

Number System

Counting Numbers

{ 1,2,3,4,}

Whole Numbers

{ 0,1,2,3,4,}

Integers (I)

{,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,}

Rational Numbers

Fractions

a/b , a I, b I

Proper , a<b 1/2

Improper, a>b 4/3

Mixed , a c/b

3 2/3

Irrational numbers , 3.030030003,

Real Numbers = R U IR

Significant Digits

Measured data

Reliability of a number

Precision position of last reliable digit

Accuracy number of significant figure

Rounding off a number

Even and odd case

Rules

Any zeros between two significant

digits are significant.

A final zero or trailing zeros in the

decimal portion ONLY are significant.

Round the final result to the least

number of significant figures of any

one term.

Examples

1) 3.0800 - five significant figures. All the rules are illustrated by this

problem. Rule one - the 3 and the 8. Rule Two - the zero between the 3

and 8. Rule three - the two trailing zeros after the 8.

2) 0.00418 - three significant figures: the 4, the 1, and the 8. This is a

typical type of problem where the student errs by giving five significant

figures as the answer.

3) 7.09 x 105 - three significant figures. When a number is written in

scientific notation, only significant figures are placed into the numerical

portion. If this number were taken out of scientific notation, it would be

0.0000709.

4) 91,600 - three significant figures. The last two zeros are not

considered to be significant (at least normally). Suppose you had

information that showed the zero in the tens place to be significant. How

would you show it to be different from the zero in the ones place, which

is not significant? The answer is scientific notation. Here is how it would

be written: 9.160 x 104. This CLEARLY indicates the presence of four

significant figures.

5) 0.003005- four significant figures. No matter how many zeros there are

between two significant figures, all the zeros are to be considered

significant. A number like 70.000001 would have 8 significant figures.

6) 3.200 x 109 - four significant figures. Notice the use of scientific

notation to indicate that there are two zeros which should be significant.

If this number were to be written without scientific notation

(3,200,000,000) the significance of those two zeros would be lost and

you would - wrongly - say that there were only two significant figures.

Factors

27 : 1,3,9,27

Multiple

3 : 3,6,9,12,

Prime factors

36 : 2,3

Least common multiple (LCM)

Exercise

3+42 x 5+4

=

5 + 1/100 + 7/1000 =

Change 3.333 to fractional form

Change 4/3 to decimal form

Go to drill for significant figures

Exercises (Cont.)

Round off the result of the following

calculations to three significant digits

2.4x6.5x10.37

21.3x0.054/(97.4x3.80)

10,15,30

18,30,12,42

3,4,5

Measurement Systems

Metric system (SI)

Meter

Kilogram

second

Inch

Pound

Second

A = 4R2

A = R2

A = BH

V = 4R3/3

V = R2H

A = BH/2

A = BH

V = BHD

V = R2H/3

Comparison

Ratio : by dividing one number by

another

15 to 3 15:3=15/3=5

a/b = c/d 15:3::25:5

changes

Direct

Inverse

Percentage : by the hundred

2 = 200%, 1.5 = 150%

50 = 25% of 400

15% of 60 = 9

Average :

Rate

Rate

Division by time

Power = root exponent

9 = 32

3 = 327

Rules

ax ay = a x+y

ax/ay = ax-y

(ax)y = axy

1/ax = a-x

xa = a1/x

Logarithms

100 = 102

2 is the logarithm of 100 on the base 10

Log(a/b) = log(a) log(b)

Log(ab) = b*log(a)

43 x 69 = x use logarithm tables to solve

Exercises

Algebra

Objective :

To do algebraic operations

To solve linear equations, simultaneous

equations, and quadratic equations

Algebraic Operation

Algebra : Relations and properties of

numbers by means of letters, signs of

operations and other symbols.

Coefficient

3x + 4y

Expression

Term

Laws

Associative law

3a + (2b 3c) = (3a +2b) 3c

(a x b) x c = a x (b x c)

Commutative law

3a x 2b = 2b x 3a

Distributive law

a(b + c) = ab + ac

Special Products

(a + b) (a + b) = a2 +2ab + b2

(a - b) (a - b) = a2 - 2ab + b2

(a + b) (a - b) = a2 - b2

(a + b) (a + ) = a2 +a(b + c) + bc

(a + b) (c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd

a3 + b3= (a + b) (a2 - ab + b2)

a3 - b3= (a - b) (a2 + ab + b2)

Simplification of Expressions

Exercises

Equations

Linear equations

3x + 5 = 9x 7

Algebraic sentence

Word problems

Simultaneous equations

Quadratic Equations

ax2 + bx + c = 0

Solutions

By plotting graphs

By completing the square

By quadratic formula

b b 4ac

x

2a

2

Review Problems

Geometry

Objective :

To evaluate the areas and volumes of different

geometric shapes.

To understand the relationship of angular,

linear and irregular geometric figures.

Fundamental Concepts

Point

Designation , + , x,

Line

One dimensional

Path traced by a point

Types

Segment

Straight

curved

Plane

Two dimensional

Path traced by a line

Volume

Three dimensional

Path traced by surfaces

Angles

Made by two straight lines which are

intersecting

Acute

Obtuse

Right

Measurement

Degree

Radian

Gradient

Revolutions

Triangles

Right

Isosceles

Equilateral

Scalene

Polygons

Square

Pentagon

Hexagon

Heptagon

Trigonometry

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