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AVIATION MATHEMATICS (GC_1)

COURSE OBJECTIVE
Students will get an overview of
aviation mathematics as per
The requirement of regulatory bodies
The application of mathematical concepts
the field

ALLOTTED TIME AND DELIVERY


Duration
40 hours theory

Delivery
Lecture discussion
Class exercise
Reading and class exercises
Home take exams/exercises

COURSE CONTENT

Arithmetic
Algebra
Geometry
Trigonometry
Practical problems on charts and
graphs

TEXT BOOKS AND


REFERENCES
Ac 65 9A, Airframe and Powerplant
Series, General Handbook
Technical Mathematics with Calculus
Shop Mathematics

EVALUATION

Class tests
Assignments
Final test
Passing mark
70%

DISCIPLINE

Punctuality
Good appearance
I'D. cards in proper place
School regualtion

Arithmetic
Objective
Addition, subtraction, multiplication and
division of:
Fractions
Decimals

Conversion of Metric System to British


System
Calculation of ratio, average and percentage
Application of logarithms and indices

Basic Operations

Addition +
Subtraction Multiplication x () *
Division ,/,
Grouping signs

Terms

Number
Sum
Minuend
Subtrahend
Difference
Multiplicand
Multiplier
Product

Terms (Contd.)

Dividend
Minuend
Divisor
Quotient Multiplicand
Remainder Dividend
Digits
Denominator
Numerator

Subtrahend

5 2 =3
7 x 3 = 21
27 / 5 = 5
and 2

Difference
Multiplier
Product
Quotient
Divisor
Remainder

Number System
Counting Numbers
{ 1,2,3,4,}

Whole Numbers
{ 0,1,2,3,4,}

Integers (I)
{,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,}

Rational Numbers

Fractions
a/b , a I, b I
Proper , a<b 1/2
Improper, a>b 4/3
Mixed , a c/b

3 2/3

Decimals , 0.5, 2.33, 4.1111


Irrational numbers , 3.030030003,
Real Numbers = R U IR

Significant Digits
Measured data
Reliability of a number
Precision position of last reliable digit
Accuracy number of significant figure

E.g. 56.78, 0.0034, 5.600, 3.0080, 50,000


Rounding off a number
Even and odd case

Rules

Non-zero digits are always significant.


Any zeros between two significant
digits are significant.
A final zero or trailing zeros in the
decimal portion ONLY are significant.
Round the final result to the least
number of significant figures of any
one term.

Examples

1) 3.0800 - five significant figures. All the rules are illustrated by this
problem. Rule one - the 3 and the 8. Rule Two - the zero between the 3
and 8. Rule three - the two trailing zeros after the 8.
2) 0.00418 - three significant figures: the 4, the 1, and the 8. This is a
typical type of problem where the student errs by giving five significant
figures as the answer.
3) 7.09 x 105 - three significant figures. When a number is written in
scientific notation, only significant figures are placed into the numerical
portion. If this number were taken out of scientific notation, it would be
0.0000709.
4) 91,600 - three significant figures. The last two zeros are not
considered to be significant (at least normally). Suppose you had
information that showed the zero in the tens place to be significant. How
would you show it to be different from the zero in the ones place, which
is not significant? The answer is scientific notation. Here is how it would
be written: 9.160 x 104. This CLEARLY indicates the presence of four
significant figures.
5) 0.003005- four significant figures. No matter how many zeros there are
between two significant figures, all the zeros are to be considered
significant. A number like 70.000001 would have 8 significant figures.
6) 3.200 x 109 - four significant figures. Notice the use of scientific
notation to indicate that there are two zeros which should be significant.
If this number were to be written without scientific notation
(3,200,000,000) the significance of those two zeros would be lost and
you would - wrongly - say that there were only two significant figures.

Multiples and Factors


Factors
27 : 1,3,9,27

Multiple
3 : 3,6,9,12,

Prime factors
36 : 2,3

Greatest common factor (GCF)


Least common multiple (LCM)

Exercise
3+42 x 5+4
=

5 + 1/100 + 7/1000 =
Change 3.333 to fractional form
Change 4/3 to decimal form
Go to drill for significant figures

Exercises (Cont.)
Round off the result of the following
calculations to three significant digits
2.4x6.5x10.37
21.3x0.054/(97.4x3.80)

Find the GCF of the following


10,15,30
18,30,12,42

Find the LCM of the following


3,4,5

Measurement Systems
Metric system (SI)
Meter
Kilogram
second

British system (BS)


Inch
Pound
Second

Area And Volume


A = 4R2
A = R2
A = BH
V = 4R3/3
V = R2H
A = BH/2

A = BH

V = BHD
V = R2H/3

Comparison
Ratio : by dividing one number by
another
15 to 3 15:3=15/3=5

Proportion : equality of two ratios


a/b = c/d 15:3::25:5

Variation : the result one when the other


changes
Direct
Inverse

Percentage and Average


Percentage : by the hundred
2 = 200%, 1.5 = 150%
50 = 25% of 400
15% of 60 = 9

Average :

Rate

Average of 3,4,5,6,7 is (3+4+5+6+7)/5 = 5

Rate
Division by time

Powers and Roots


Power = root exponent
9 = 32

Root = index Power


3 = 327

Rules

ax ay = a x+y
ax/ay = ax-y
(ax)y = axy
1/ax = a-x
xa = a1/x

Logarithms
100 = 102
2 is the logarithm of 100 on the base 10

Log(ab) = loga + logb


Log(a/b) = log(a) log(b)
Log(ab) = b*log(a)
43 x 69 = x use logarithm tables to solve

Exercises

Algebra
Objective :
To do algebraic operations
To solve linear equations, simultaneous
equations, and quadratic equations

Algebraic Operation
Algebra : Relations and properties of
numbers by means of letters, signs of
operations and other symbols.
Coefficient
3x + 4y
Expression
Term

Laws
Associative law
3a + (2b 3c) = (3a +2b) 3c
(a x b) x c = a x (b x c)

Commutative law
3a x 2b = 2b x 3a

Distributive law
a(b + c) = ab + ac

Special Products

(a + b) (a + b) = a2 +2ab + b2
(a - b) (a - b) = a2 - 2ab + b2
(a + b) (a - b) = a2 - b2
(a + b) (a + ) = a2 +a(b + c) + bc
(a + b) (c + d) = ac + ad + bc + bd
a3 + b3= (a + b) (a2 - ab + b2)
a3 - b3= (a - b) (a2 + ab + b2)

Simplification of Expressions
Exercises

Equations
Linear equations
3x + 5 = 9x 7

Algebraic sentence

Word problems
Simultaneous equations

Quadratic Equations
ax2 + bx + c = 0
Solutions
By plotting graphs
By completing the square
By quadratic formula

b b 4ac
x
2a
2

Review Problems

Geometry
Objective :
To evaluate the areas and volumes of different
geometric shapes.
To understand the relationship of angular,
linear and irregular geometric figures.

Fundamental Concepts
Point

Designation , + , x,

Line
One dimensional
Path traced by a point
Types
Segment
Straight
curved

Fundamental Concepts (Contd.)


Plane
Two dimensional
Path traced by a line

Volume
Three dimensional
Path traced by surfaces

Angles
Made by two straight lines which are
intersecting
Acute
Obtuse
Right

Measurement
Degree
Radian
Gradient
Revolutions

Triangles
Right
Isosceles
Equilateral
Scalene

Polygons
Square
Pentagon
Hexagon
Heptagon

Circles and Arcs

Trigonometry

Charts & Graphs