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You are on page 1of 27

Introduction

Objectives

Types of vibrations

Simple harmonic motion (SHM)

Principle of superposition applied to si

mple harmonic motions

Beats

Fourier

Summary

References

Introduction

motion.

Mechanical vibration is the study of oscillatory

motions of bodies.

Vibrations are harmful for engineering systems.

Some times vibrations can be useful. For

example, vibratory compactors are used for

compacting concrete during construction work.

Excessive vibration causes discomfort to human

beings, damage to machines and buildings and

wear of machine parts such as bearings and

gears.

Objectives

Understand the causes and effects of vibration

Know about the types of vibrations

Explain about simple harmonic motion (SHM)

Learn Principle of superposition applied to simple

harmonic motions

Learn about beats

Causes of vibration

1.Bad design

2.Unbalanced inertia forces

3.Poor quality of manufacture

4.Improper bearings (Due to wear & tear or bad

quality)

5.Worn out gear teeth

6.External excitation applied on the system

EFFECTS

1.Unwanted noise

2.Early failure due to cyclical stress(fatigue failure)

3.Increased wear

4.Poor quality product

5.Difficult to sell a product

6.Vibrations in machine tools can lead to improper

machining of parts

BASIC TERMS

Degrees

of Freedom

It is the number of coordinates required to

describe the motion of the body.

Free

vibration

If a system, after an initial disturbance is left

to vibrate on its own, the resulting vibration

is known as free vibration. The frequency of

free vibration is known as natural frequency

of vibration, which is an important parameter

in vibration analysis.

Forced

vibration

If a system is subjected to an external

repeating type of force, the resulting

vibration is known as forced vibration.

The frequency of forced vibration is

known as forced frequency of vibration,

which is also an important parameter in

vibration analysis

Undamped

vibration

If no energy is lost or dissipated in

resistance during vibration, the resulting

vibration is known as undamped

vibration.

Damped

vibration

If energy is lost or dissipated due to

resistance during vibration, it is known

as damped vibration.

Linear

vibration

If all the basic components of a

vibrating system behave linearly the

resulting vibration is known as linear

vibration.

Non-linear vibration

If any basic component behaves nonlinearly, the resulting vibration is

known as non-linear vibration.

Periodic

vibration

If the value of excitation acting on the vibratory

system is known at any given instant, the

resulting vibration is known as periodic

vibration.

Random vibration

If the value of excitation acting on the vibratory

system is known at any given instant, the

resulting vibration is known as periodic

vibration. If excitation is non-periodic, the

resulting vibration is called as Random vibration.

Types of Vibrations

Based on degrees of freedom.

The number of degrees of freedom for

a system is the number of

kinematically independent variables

necessary to completely describe the

motion of every particle in the system.

classify mechanical vibrations as follows

1.Single Degree of freedom Systems

2.Two Degrees of freedom Systems

3.Multidegree of freedom Systems

4.Continuous Systems or systems with infinite

degrees of freedom

Another broad classification of vibrations is

1.Free and forced vibrations

2.Damped and undamped vibrations

1.Linear vibrations

2.Non-linear vibrations

3.Random vibrations

4.Transient vibrations

differential equations.

A system is nonlinear if its motion is governed by

nonlinear differential equations.

If the excitation force is known at all times, the

excitation is said to be deterministic.

If the excitation force is unknown, but averages and

standard derivations are known, the excitation is said

to be random.In this case the resulting vibrations are

also random.

Some times systems are subjected to short duration

nonperiodic forces. The resulting vibrations are called

transient vibrations.

One example of a nonperiodic short duration

excitation is the ground motion in an earthquake

Simple Harmonic

Motion(SHM)

Simple harmonic motion (SHM) Any motion, which repeats itself after equal intervals of

time, is called as periodic motion. The repetition time t is called the period of oscillation

and its reciprocal 1/t is frequency of oscillation denoted by f.

The simplest form of periodic motion is harmonic motion. The harmonic motion can be

represented as the projection of a straight line OP with angular speed of OP, w as shown

below. Since, the motion repeats itself in 2p radians, the angular speed of OP, w can

written as

Mathematically,

The

motion in mm, w circular frequency in radians / sec, t is time in seconds.

to simple harmonic motion

amplitudes and different phase angle results in a harmonic

motion.

Consider two harmonic motions

equations 5 and 6 either by analytically or by vectorially.

(a)

Analytical Method

Considering

The above equation is also a harmonic motion with amplitude A and phase

angle q.

Resultant amplitude A

To obtain amplitude of resultant motion square and add equations 8 and 9

To obtain phase angle of resultant motion divide equation 9 by equation 8

Problem

analytically

x1(t) = 2 cos (wt + 0.5) and

x2(t) = 2 sin (wt + 1)

Problem 1

x1(t) = 2 cos (wt + 0.5) and

x2(t) = 2 sin (wt + 1)

Analytical solution

x(t) = x1 + x2 (t)

x(t) = 2 cos (wt + 0.5) + 5 sin (wt + 1)

x(t) = 2[ cos (wt) cos (0.5) - sin (wt) sin (0.5)] + 5[ sin (wt) cos (1) + cos (wt) sin (1)]

x(t) = sin (wt) [-2 sin (0.5) + 5 cos (1) + cos (wt) [2 cos (0.5) + 5 sin (1)]

x(t) = sin (wt) [-2 (0.4794) + 5 (0.5403) + cos (wt) [2 (0.8775) + 5(0.8414)]

x(t) = 1.742 sin (wt) + 5.962 cos (wt)

x(t) = A sin (wt + q) = A ( sin wt cos q + cos wt sin q)

we get from above equations.

A cos = 1.742

A sin = 5.962

Beats

When two harmonic motions with frequencies close to one another are in

the same direction, their super positioned resulting motion is like as shown

in the below figure and is referred as Beats. The phenomenon of beats if

often observed in machines and structures, when forcing frequency is very

close to natural frequency of the machine / structure.

problems

in terms of sine and cosines. The application of Fourier series in

vibration studies is that experimentally obtained vibration results

can be represented by analytically.

If x(t) is a periodic function with time period t, then

mathematically the Fourier series can be written as

Contd

referred as Harmonic analysis.

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