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MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS

Introduction

Objectives
Types of vibrations
Simple harmonic motion (SHM)
Principle of superposition applied to si
mple harmonic motions

Beats
Fourier

theorem and simple problems


Summary
References

Introduction

A body is said to vibrate if it has periodic


motion.
Mechanical vibration is the study of oscillatory
motions of bodies.
Vibrations are harmful for engineering systems.
Some times vibrations can be useful. For
example, vibratory compactors are used for
compacting concrete during construction work.
Excessive vibration causes discomfort to human
beings, damage to machines and buildings and
wear of machine parts such as bearings and
gears.

Objectives
Understand the causes and effects of vibration
Know about the types of vibrations
Explain about simple harmonic motion (SHM)
Learn Principle of superposition applied to simple
harmonic motions
Learn about beats

Causes of vibration
1.Bad design
2.Unbalanced inertia forces
3.Poor quality of manufacture
4.Improper bearings (Due to wear & tear or bad
quality)
5.Worn out gear teeth
6.External excitation applied on the system

EFFECTS
1.Unwanted noise
2.Early failure due to cyclical stress(fatigue failure)
3.Increased wear
4.Poor quality product
5.Difficult to sell a product
6.Vibrations in machine tools can lead to improper
machining of parts

BASIC TERMS
Degrees

of Freedom
It is the number of coordinates required to
describe the motion of the body.

Free

vibration
If a system, after an initial disturbance is left
to vibrate on its own, the resulting vibration
is known as free vibration. The frequency of
free vibration is known as natural frequency
of vibration, which is an important parameter
in vibration analysis.

Forced

vibration
If a system is subjected to an external
repeating type of force, the resulting
vibration is known as forced vibration.
The frequency of forced vibration is
known as forced frequency of vibration,
which is also an important parameter in
vibration analysis

Undamped

vibration
If no energy is lost or dissipated in
resistance during vibration, the resulting
vibration is known as undamped
vibration.

Damped

vibration
If energy is lost or dissipated due to
resistance during vibration, it is known
as damped vibration.

Linear

vibration
If all the basic components of a
vibrating system behave linearly the
resulting vibration is known as linear
vibration.
Non-linear vibration
If any basic component behaves nonlinearly, the resulting vibration is
known as non-linear vibration.

Periodic

vibration
If the value of excitation acting on the vibratory
system is known at any given instant, the
resulting vibration is known as periodic
vibration.
Random vibration
If the value of excitation acting on the vibratory
system is known at any given instant, the
resulting vibration is known as periodic
vibration. If excitation is non-periodic, the
resulting vibration is called as Random vibration.

Types of Vibrations
Based on degrees of freedom.
The number of degrees of freedom for
a system is the number of
kinematically independent variables
necessary to completely describe the
motion of every particle in the system.

Based on degrees of freedom, we can


classify mechanical vibrations as follows
1.Single Degree of freedom Systems
2.Two Degrees of freedom Systems
3.Multidegree of freedom Systems
4.Continuous Systems or systems with infinite
degrees of freedom
Another broad classification of vibrations is
1.Free and forced vibrations
2.Damped and undamped vibrations

Vibration problems are classified as


1.Linear vibrations
2.Non-linear vibrations
3.Random vibrations
4.Transient vibrations

A system is linear if its motion is governed by linear


differential equations.
A system is nonlinear if its motion is governed by
nonlinear differential equations.
If the excitation force is known at all times, the
excitation is said to be deterministic.
If the excitation force is unknown, but averages and
standard derivations are known, the excitation is said
to be random.In this case the resulting vibrations are
also random.
Some times systems are subjected to short duration
nonperiodic forces. The resulting vibrations are called
transient vibrations.
One example of a nonperiodic short duration
excitation is the ground motion in an earthquake

Simple Harmonic
Motion(SHM)

Simple harmonic motion (SHM) Any motion, which repeats itself after equal intervals of
time, is called as periodic motion. The repetition time t is called the period of oscillation
and its reciprocal 1/t is frequency of oscillation denoted by f.
The simplest form of periodic motion is harmonic motion. The harmonic motion can be
represented as the projection of a straight line OP with angular speed of OP, w as shown
below. Since, the motion repeats itself in 2p radians, the angular speed of OP, w can
written as

Mathematically,

The

the oscillatory motion of mass in x - direction is

equation 4 is the equation for a SHM, where, A amplitude of the


motion in mm, w circular frequency in radians / sec, t is time in seconds.

Principle of superposition applied


to simple harmonic motion

Addition of two harmonic motions of similar frequency, different


amplitudes and different phase angle results in a harmonic
motion.
Consider two harmonic motions

The resulting harmonic motion can be obtained by adding


equations 5 and 6 either by analytically or by vectorially.

(a)

Analytical Method

Considering

substitute equations 8 and 9 in equation 7,

The above equation is also a harmonic motion with amplitude A and phase
angle q.

Resultant amplitude A
To obtain amplitude of resultant motion square and add equations 8 and 9

Resultant phase angle f


To obtain phase angle of resultant motion divide equation 9 by equation 8

Problem

1 :Add following two harmonics


analytically
x1(t) = 2 cos (wt + 0.5) and
x2(t) = 2 sin (wt + 1)

Problem 1

:Add following two harmonics analytically


x1(t) = 2 cos (wt + 0.5) and
x2(t) = 2 sin (wt + 1)
Analytical solution
x(t) = x1 + x2 (t)
x(t) = 2 cos (wt + 0.5) + 5 sin (wt + 1)
x(t) = 2[ cos (wt) cos (0.5) - sin (wt) sin (0.5)] + 5[ sin (wt) cos (1) + cos (wt) sin (1)]
x(t) = sin (wt) [-2 sin (0.5) + 5 cos (1) + cos (wt) [2 cos (0.5) + 5 sin (1)]
x(t) = sin (wt) [-2 (0.4794) + 5 (0.5403) + cos (wt) [2 (0.8775) + 5(0.8414)]
x(t) = 1.742 sin (wt) + 5.962 cos (wt)
x(t) = A sin (wt + q) = A ( sin wt cos q + cos wt sin q)

x(t) = A sin (wt + q) = sin wt ( A cos q) + cos wt ( A sin q)


we get from above equations.

A cos = 1.742
A sin = 5.962

q = tan -1 3.422 = 1.2565 radians OR 73.710

Beats

When two harmonic motions with frequencies close to one another are in
the same direction, their super positioned resulting motion is like as shown
in the below figure and is referred as Beats. The phenomenon of beats if
often observed in machines and structures, when forcing frequency is very
close to natural frequency of the machine / structure.

Fourier theorem and simple


problems

With the help of Fourier series a periodic function can be analyzed


in terms of sine and cosines. The application of Fourier series in
vibration studies is that experimentally obtained vibration results
can be represented by analytically.
If x(t) is a periodic function with time period t, then
mathematically the Fourier series can be written as

Contd

The above mathematical analysis to obtain Fourier series is


referred as Harmonic analysis.