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Mechanical System

Water Supply System

What do you think about


What are the Source of Water?

What are the processes that water is going

through until it reach to the consumers?

What is a water supply system?

A water supply system or water supply network is a system of
engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components which
provide water for community (house, agriculture, fabrics, etc.)

What is the Purpose of Water Supply Piping

All water supply systems use a combination of
pipes (of different dimensions and materials),
valves and outlets to deliver water to building
users. Some water supply systems also use
storage tanks and pumps. Designing a water
supply system involves getting all of these
elements right so that clean water is delivered to
the user at the appropriate rate and temperature

How Water Flows From Reservoir to Storage

Point and to Consumer?
Distribution System:
For efficient distribution it is required that water should
reach to every consumers with required rate of flow.
Pressure in pipe is important and necessary, which
should force the water to reach at all the places

Distribution System are classified as:

Pumping system
Gravity system
Dual system

What is Pumping System?

Water is directly pumped in the mains
Number of pumps are required to work at different time
& pressure rate in a day.
If the power fails the whole supply will freeze.
The pressure in pipe is controlling by water pump.
We use this method when the storage is almost the
same level or lower than supplying area.

What is Gravity System?

When the reservoir and/or storage are sufficiently higher than the
supplied area.
Water will flow in mains using gravity which pumping system will not
be required.

What is Dual System?

Is also known as combined gravity and pumping system.

Pump is connected to the mains as well as to the elevated reservoir
When there is less water demand, water is stored in elevated reservoir.
With increase in water demand, water will come from both pumping station as
well as reservoir.
During power failure and fire fighting water stored in the reservoir can be used.

Types of Storage

concrete-lined earthen reservoir;

reinforced concrete reservoir;
elevated steel reservoir;
ferrocement tank.

Concrete-lined earthen reservoir

Reinforced concrete reservoir

Elevated steel reservoir;

Ferrocement tank

What we use to supply the water?

Main parts of water supply systems

Building Supply
Carries water from the city water supply system or other source
to the building.

Water Meter
Measure and record the amount of water used.

Building Main
Is the large pipe that carries water to the risers.
The building main is run (located) in the basement, ceiling,
crawl space or below the concrete floor slab.

Is a water supply pipe that extends vertically in the building.
Carries water to fixture branches.
It is connected to the building main.

Fixture Branch
Supply the individual plumbing fixtures.
The water supply pipe that runs from the riser or main
to the fixture being connection.
Fixture branch is usually run (located) in the floor or in
the wall behind the fixtures.

Fixture Connection
A fixture connection runs from the fixture branch to the
A shut-off valve is located in the hot and cold water
supply at the fixture connection

Is the art and technique of installing pipes, fixture
& other components for transferring water and
other liquids from a source to its consumers.
Plumbing came from Latin word Plumbum which
means Lead.
It refers to a system of pipes and fixtures installed
in a building for the distribution of potable water
and the removal wastes.

Plumbing Cycle

Water Supply Distribution Systems

In a building

Building water Supply System

What are the piping systems in a building?
Fire Hydrant piping system.
Cold water or clean water pipe system for daily
Hot water piping system.
Waste water piping system.

What is a fire hydrant piping system?

It is designed with a specific pressure that is used

when firing.

What is a Gas Piping System?

It is used to supply gas into the units
in a building.

What is Waste Water Piping System?

This system is
used to discharge
the plotted or
waste water from
a building or
community to the
treatment plants.
Special type of
pipes and

What is Cold water Piping System?

Carries water from the street main to building and
units of a building.
Cold water system provides water for:
Drinking purpose
Kitchen uses
Sanitary uses
Gardening and etc.

Types of building water distribution

Two basic types of water supply distribution
systems are used in buildings.
Upfeed (Upflow)
Downfeed (downflow)

Upfeed (upflow)
in low buildings, cold watercan be distributed by
the up-feed method .
in which at each story plumbingfixtures are served by
branch pipes connected to risers that carry water
upwardunder pressure from the water source.
If the water source pressure isnot sufficient to provide
adequate water pressure a pump upfeed distribution
system is used.

Upfeed (upflow)

Downfeed (Downflow)
In buildings that cannot be adequately serviced by
an upfeed system, water is pumped to elevated
storage tanks and the water is fed down into the
building by gravity.
This gravity system, fed from the upper stories to
the lower is called a downfeed distribution system

Downfeed (Downflow)

Direct Water Supply System (Upfeed)

Saving in pipe works especially in multistory buildings.
(This is due to cold water distribution pipe from the
cistern being omitted)
Cheaper as the storage tank is no need.
No chance of water growing harmful bacteria.
Can deal with large demand more easily.

If cold mains fail there wont be any emergency backup
Cannot always supply cold water as the mains water
pressure is low (in peak hour).
More system noice as water is under high pressure.

Indirect Supply System (Downfeed)

There is no risk of back siphon age.
There is no tendency of pipe bursting due to the low pressure
in pipe work.
Adequate store in case of an interruption in the mains supply.

Longer Pipe runs are required
A larger storage cistern is necessary
Fresh drinking water is only available at the kitchen sink (or
single point)

Water Supply Distribution


Rigid-Pipe distribution configuration

In rigid-pipe distribution configuration, the hot and
cold water distribution pipes are installed parallel
to each other.
Hot and cold pipes should be spaced at least 6 in
(150 mm) apart or have insulation between them.

Rigid Pipe

Rigid-Pipe distribution configuration

Homerun (manifold) distribution configuration

Consists of plastic or metal plumbing manifold and
flexible plastic piping.
Manifolds have two separate chambers: the cold water
chamber is supplied from the main water supply line and
the hot water chamber is fed from water heater.
Water enters the manifold at the bottom.
The pipes at the top of the manifold serve and return from
the water heater.
Flexible pipes run to individual fixtures.

Plumbing manifold

Homerun (manifold) distribution


Operation and Maintenance of

Water Distribution System

Collecting bacteriological samples

Testing the chlorine residuals
Finding and repairing leaks
Testing system pressure at various locations on a systematic basis
Flushing the main lines at least once a year
Inspecting fire hydrants twice a year
Locating and exercising in-line valves at least once a year
Cleaning the storage reservoir once a year
Inspecting the storage reservoir,, valves, once a year
Replacing pilot valves and altitude valves once a year