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DIRECTING

A function of management

Sugandha Vidge
80
Shweta Gupta
82
Varun Bhatnagar
83
Nupur Vashisth

MEANING
Refers to the process of motivation,
communication and leadership
It deals with the relationship of managers
and non managers
Managers as leaders should understand
the motives of people, and they should
maintain or improve the interpersonal
relationship in an organization so that
people can be satisfied from contributing to
the achievement and development of
objectives of the enterprise

ELEMENTS OF DIRECTING
MOTIVATION
LEADERSHIP
COMMUNICATION

MOTIVATION
Motivation is a process that explains
how the needs, drives, urges
influence and control the behavior of
mankind.

MAJOR THEORIES OF
MOTIVATION
I. Need theories:
- Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
- Herzbergs Two Factor Theory
- McGregors theory of X and Y
II. Process theories:
- Expectancy Theory
- Goal Setting Theory
- Adam Equity Theory
III. Reinforcement theory

MASLOWS NEED
HIERARCHY THEORY

TWO FACTOR THEORY


HYGEINE
FACTORS

MOTIVATORS

If absent- doesnt
if absent- leads to lead to
dissatisfaction
dissatisfaction
If present- act as
If present- does
motivators
not act as
Challenging work
motivators
Recognition
Status
Learning and
Job security
development
Salary
Work conditions Opportunities
Creativity
Incentives

THEORY X AND Y
THEORY X
people who do not take
responsibilities and seek
direction.
Dislike work and attempt
to avoid it wherever
possible
Less ambitious and not
trustworthy
Want to be controlled
always
Lower order needs to be
satisfied.

THEORY Y
keen to take
responsibilities and self
directed.
View work as being
natural as rest or play.
More ambitious and
trustworthy.
Self controlled.
Higher order needs to
be satisfied.

VROOMS EXPECTANCY
THEORY
Motivation depends on how much we want

something and how likely we are to get it


Elements
Valence (V)
Expectancy(E)
Instrumentality(I)

GOAL SETTING THEORY


This

theory states that goal setting is essentially


linked to task performance. It states that
specific and challenging goals along with
appropriate feedback contribute to higher and
better task performance

Goal

Achievement Depends on:

Acceptance

Extent to which persons accept a goal as their


own.
Commitment
Extent to which an individual is personally
interested in reaching a goal.

ADAM EQUITY THEORY


Social comparison takes place
Employees mentally construct outcome-toinput ratios for themselves and their
referent other and socially compare
If equity exists, you experience no tension
and persist at your current level of effort
When Outcome Self / Input Self is not equal
to Outcome Reference person/ Input Reference person
,the tension is created and employees are
motivated to restore equity.

REINFORCEMENT THEORY
It states that individuals behaviour is a

function of its consequences.


Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Extinction

LEADERSHIP
Leadership is the process of influencing
the behavior , attitudes, activities and
efforts of an individual or a group for
achieving common goal.

THEORIES OF LEADERSHIP
Traits Theory
Behavioural Theory

TRAITS THEORY
Drive
Desire

to lead people
Honesty and Integrity
Self Confidence
Intelligent
Knowledge
Extroversion

BEHAVIOURAL THEORY
Motivation
Positive
Negative
Supervision
People

Oriented
Task Oriented

Managerial grids
Impoverished

Management (1, 1)
Task management (9, 1)
Middle-of-the-Road (5, 5)
Country Club (1, 9)
Team Management (9, 9)

LEADERSHIP STYLES
On the basis of behavioural approach
i.
ii.
iii.
o.
i.
ii.

Power orientation
Leadership as a continuum
Employee-production orientation
On the basis of situational approach
Fiedlers contingency model
Hursey and Blanchards situational model

Power Orientation

Leadership as Continuum
AUTOCRATIC
Use of authority by manager
rein

Free-

Area of
freedom for
subordinates

Manager makes Manager seeks Manager presents


Manager present
Manager
define
manager
Decision and
decision
Ideas and invites
problems, get
limits,
asks
permits
announces
suggestions
suggestion &
group to
subordinate
make decision
make
to function

Situational approach
Hersey

Blanchards

Also known as life cycle theory of leadership ;


there are two basic consideration in this model :i. Leadership Styles
ii. Maturity of Subordinates

Leadership Styles
Based
i.
ii.

on the combination two consideration:Relationship behaviour


Task behaviour

HIGH

Relationship High relationship and


relationship and
behaviour
low task
Low

Low relation ship and


relationship andTask behaviour
low taskLow

High
high task
Low
high
task
High

Maturity of subordinates
Based

on the context of :i.


Ability
ii. Willingness
We get four combination :iii. Low ability and low willingness
iv. Low ability and willingness
v. High ability and low willingness
vi. High ability and high willingness

Combining leadership style and


maturity
High
participating

selling

Relationship
behaviour
delegating

Low
High

telling

Low

Task behaviour

High

Maturity of followers

Low

COMMUNICATION
A process of transmitting ideas, information,
attitudes (images which we have formulated
for ourselves) by the use of symbols, words,
pictures, figures from the source (who is the
originator of the message) to a receiver, for
the purpose of influencing with intent. So
communication is considered as a process
through which senders and receivers of
messages interact in a given social context.

FORMS
Verbal
oral

communication
written communication
Non-verbal
gestural communication

IMPORTANCE
Communication

helps employees to understand


their role clearly and perform effectively.
It helps in achieving co-ordination and mutual
understanding which in turn, leads to industrial
harmony and increased productivity.
Communication improves managerial efficiency
and ensures cooperation of the staff.
Effective communication helps in moulding
attitudes and building up employees morale.
Communication is the means through which
delegation and decentralisation of authority
is successfully accomplished in an organisation.

A MODEL OF
COMMUNICATION PROCESS

COMMUNICATION
NETWORKS

Ve r t i c a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n
Communication

Lateral

BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
Information
Selective

Overload

Perception

Filtering
Gender

Styles

Emotions
Language

How to Overcome these


Barriers
Avoid

Information Overload

Eliminating
Simple
Active

Organizational Structure

Listening

Emotional
Use

differences in perception

State

of Simple Language

COMMUNICATION AND
TECHNOLOGY
This section is about all the manners associated with
communication both new and old. Even as we write
this, a new device hits the market and everything changes
but, really, not everything changes. Communication
itself has not changed; it is the means we actually use to
communicate that changes almost daily.
Some of the major technology
enabled means of communications are-Facsimile
-Tele-Communication

-E-mail
-Video Conferencing
However, maintaining the
standards of communication that
have served and will continue to
serve us well into the future is
whats important.

Thank you