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for Isothermal Systems

several simple flow systems by the shell momentum

balance method. The resulting velocity distributions were

then used to get other quantities, such as the average

velocity and drag force.

For more complex problems we need a general mass

balance and a general momentum balance that can be

applied to any problem, including problems with

nonrectilinear motion. That is the main point of this

chapter.

of continuity (for the mass balance) and the equation of

motion (for the momentum balance). These equations can

be used as the starting point for studying all problems

involving the isothermal flow of a pure fluid.

Those equations are called as equations of change

because they describe the change of velocity due to the

change of time and position in the fluid system.

(MASS BALANCE)

This equation is developed by writing a mass balance over a

volume element x.y.z , fixed in space, through which a

fluid is flowing (see Fig. 3.1-1):

shaded face at x is (vx)|x y.z, and the rate of mass leaving

through the shaded face at x + x is (vx)|x+x y.z.

of faces. The rate of increase of mass within the volume

element is x.y.z(/t). The mass balance then

becomes

x y z

y z vx x vx x x x z v y y v y y y

x y vz z vz

z z

(3.1-2)

the limit as x, y, and z go to zero, and then using the

definitions of the partial derivatives, we get

.(3.1-3)

vx

vy

vz

t

x

y

z

rate of change of the fluid density at a fixed point in space.

This equation can be written more concisely by using

vector notation as follows:.

.v = "divergence of v"

simple meaning: it is the net rate of mass efflux per unit

volume. A very important special form of the equation of

continuity is that for a fluid of constant density, for which

Eq. 3.1-4 assumes the particularly simple form

(incompressible fluid)

.

Of course, no fluid is truly incompressible, but frequently

in engineering and biological applications, the assumption

of constant density results in considerable simplification

and very little error.

Surfaces for Incompressible Newtonian

Fluids

Show that for any kind of flow pattern, the normal stresses are

zero at fluid-solid boundaries, for Newtonian fluids with

constant density. This is an important result that we shall use

often.

SOLUTION

We visualize the flow of a fluid near some solid surface, which

may or may not be flat. The flow may be quite general, with all

three velocity components being functions of all three

coordinates and time.

At some point P on the surface we erect a Cartesian coordinate

system with the origin at P.

We now ask what the normal stress zz is at P.

According to Table B.l or Eq. 1.2-6, zz = -2(dvz/dz), because

.v 0 for incompressible fluids. Then at point P on the surface

of the solid

z

y

According to mass balance

for incompressible flow

0

.

constant. However, on the solid surface at z = 0, the velocity

vx is zero at any position of x by the no-slip condition (see

2.1), and therefore the derivative dvx/dx on the surface = 0.

The same is true of dvy/dy on the surface. Therefore zz is zero.

It is also true that xx and yy are zero at the surface because of

the vanishing of the derivatives at z = 0. (Note: The vanishing

of the normal stresses on solid surfaces does not apply to

polymeric fluids, which are viscoelastic).

For compressible fluids, the normal stresses at solid surfaces

are zero if the density is not changing with time (see Problem

3C.2.)

(MOMENTUM BALANCE)

To get the equation of motion we write a momentum balance

over the volume element x.y.z in Fig. 3.2-1 of the form.

The fluid is allowed to move through all six faces of the volume

element.

Remember that Eq. 3.2-1 is a vector equation with components

in each of the 3 coordinate directions x, y or z containing shear

stresses, normal stresses and convective momentum fluxes.

The y- and z-components may be treated analogously.

First, we consider the rates of flow of the x-component

of momentum into and out of the volume element shown

in Fig. 3.2-1. (second subscript x: directions of shear and

normal stresses for molecular transport and direction of

convective momentum flux for convective transport)

Momentum enters and leaves x.y.z by two

mechanisms: molecular transport (see 1.2) and

convective transport (see 1.7).

components are the same,

i.e. x (direction of effects)

First subscripts x, y, and z (cause): directions of momentum

transfers due to the change of velocity for molecular transport or

due to convection represented by velocity in x, y and z directions

for convective transport. Cause can be from all directions.

Second subscripts x (effect): directions of shear stress or normal

stress or direction of convective momentum flux represented by

direction of mass flux (in x direction). Effect is only in one

direction in a momentum balance

across the shaded face at x by all mechanisms-both

convective and molecular-is xx|x yz and the rate at which

it leaves the shaded face at x + x is xx|x+x yz.

The rates at which x-momentum enters and leaves through

the faces at y and y + y are yx|y zx and yx|y+y zx

respectively.

Similarly, the rates at which x-momentum enters and leaves

through the faces at z and z + z are zx|z xy and zx|z+z

xy

rate of addition of x-momentum across all three pairs of

faces.

.

Next there is the external force (typically the gravitational

force) acting on the fluid in the volume element. The xcomponent of this force is

Equations 3.2-2 and 3.2-3 give the x-components of the

three terms on the right side of Eq. 3.2-1.

of increase of x-momentum within the volume element:

x.y.z (vx)/t. When this is done, we have the xcomponent of the momentum balance. When this

equation is divided by x.y.z and the limit is taken as

x, y and z zero, the following equation results:

x-direction

derivatives. Similar equations can be developed for the yand z-components of the momentum balance:

.

be written as follows:

.

This is a vector equation (vector dot tensor = vector)

and 6 can be reproduced. The quantities vi are the Cartesian

components of the vector v, which is the momentum per unit

volume at a point in the fluid.

Similarly, the quantities gi are the components of the vector

g, which is the external force per unit volume. The term [. ]i is the ith component of the vector -[. ].

When the magnitude of ith component of Eq. 3.2-7 is

multiplied by the unit vector in the ith direction and the three

components are added together vectorially, we get

of momentum. It is the translation of Eq. 3.2-1 into

mathematical symbols.

flux tensor is the sum of the convective momentum flux

tensor vv and the molecular momentum flux tensor ,

and that the latter can be written as p + . When we

insert = p + vv + into Eq. 3.2-8, we get the

following equation of motion

directions of 2nd subscripts

called the "gradient of (the scalar) p" sometimes written

as "grad p ". The symbol [. ] is a vector (=vector dot

tensor) called the "divergence of (the tensor) " and

[.vv] is a vector (=vector dot tensor) called the

"divergence of vv.

In the next two sections we give some formal results that

are based on the equation of motion. The equations of

change for mechanical energy and angular momentum are

not used for problem solving in this chapter, but will be

referred to in Chapter 7 (this chapter is excluded from

the lecture material!).

TERMS OF THE SUBSTANTIAL

DERIVATIVE

Suppose we stand on a bridge and observe the concentration of

fish just below us as a function of time. We can then record the

time rate of change of the fish concentration at a fixed location.

The result is (c/t)|x,y,z the partial derivative of c with respect to

t, at constant x, y, and z.

The Total Time Derivative d/dt (derivative against all variables)

Now suppose that we jump into a motor boat and speed around

on the river, sometimes going upstream, sometimes downstream,

and sometimes across the current as we wish.

instant, the time rate of change of the observed fish

concentration is

dx

dy c

c

dz c

.dc c

(3.5-1)

dt

t

x,y ,z

dt

x

y ,x,t

dt y x,z ,t dt z

x,y ,t

velocity of the boat.

The Substantial Time Derivative D/Dt

Next we climb into a canoe and we just float along with

the current to observe the fish concentration.

v of the stream, which has components vx, vy, and vz.

If at any instant we report the time rate of change of fish

concentration, we are then giving

substantial derivative (meaning that the time rate of

change is reported as one moves with the "substance").

The terms material derivative, hydrodynamic derivative,

and derivative following the motion are also used.

terms of /t into equations written with D/Dt. For any scalar

function f(x,y,z,t) we can do the following manipulations:

=0

thebalance

second line = 0

According to in

mass

according to the equation of continuity.

D/Dt = /t + v.

Similarly, for any vector function f(x,y,z,t),

temporal change

Spatial/positional change

change given in 3.1 to 3.4 in terms of the substantial

derivative as shown in Table 3.5-1.

: in Chapter 7, excluded

in our lecture

or increasing as one moves along with the fluid, because of

the compression [(.v) < 0] or expansion of the fluid [(.v)

> 0].

Equation B can be interpreted as (mass) x (acceleration) =

the sum of the pressure forces, viscous forces, and the

external force. In other words, Eq. 3.2-9 is equivalent to

Newton's second law of motion

(density x acceleration = summation of all

forces /volume)

For constant and , insertion of the Newtonian expression

for from Eq. 1.2-7 into the equation of motion leads to the

very famous Navier-Stokes equation, first developed from

molecular arguments by Navier, a French engineer, and from

continuum arguments by Stokes, an English mathematician:

.

When the acceleration terms in Navier-Stokes equation are

neglected-that is, when (Dv/Dt) = 0 -we get

which is called the Stokes flow equation. It is sometimes

called the creeping flow equation, because the term (v.v]

0 when the flow is extremely slow and can be approached as

steady flow.

When

neglected - that is, . = 2v = 0 - the equation of

motion becomes (normal and shear stresses occur due

to viscosity)

which is known as the Euler equation for "inviscid"

fluid in unsteady flow. Of course, there are no truly

"inviscid" fluids, but there are many flows in which

the viscous forces are relatively unimportant (far from

solid surfaces or very high velocity). Examples are

the flow around airplane wings (except near the solid

boundary), flow of rivers around the upstream surfaces

of bridge supports, some problems in compressible gas

dynamics, and flow of ocean current.

for the Steady Flow of Inviscid Fluids

The Bernoulli equation for steady flow of inviscid,

incompressible fluids (conditions in Stokes flow and

Euler eqs) is one of the most famous equations in

classical fluid dynamics. Show how it is obtained from

the Euler equation of motion.

SOLUTION

Inviscid Fluids omit the time-derivative term in Eq. 3.59, and then use the vector identity [.vvl = [v.vl =

(v.v) - [v x [ x v]] (Eq. A.4-23) to rewrite the Navier

Stokes equation as

Next we divide Eq. 3.5-10 by and then form the dot product

with the unit vector s = v/|v| in the flow direction. When the

fluid is inviscid, then there is no vorticity ( x v = 0) and

consequently v x ( x v) = 0, and (s.) can be replaced by d/ds,

where s is the distance along a streamline. Thus we get

2, we get

pressure, and elevation of two points along a streamline in a

fluid in steady-state flow of inviscid fluid.

TO SOLVE FLOW PROBLEMS

To describe the flow of a Newtonian fluid at constant

temperature, we need in general

The equation of continuity Eq. 3.1-4

The equation of motion

Eq. 3.2-9

The components of Eq. 1.2-6

The equation of state = (p)

The equations for the viscosities = (p, T)

These equations, along with the necessary boundary (related to

positions) and initial (related to time) conditions, determine

completely the pressure, density, and velocity distributions in the

fluid.

They are seldom used in their complete form to solve fluid

dynamics problems. Usually restricted forms are used for

convenience, as in this chapter.

viscosity, then we use

The equation of continuity Eq. 3.1-4 and Table B.4

The Navier-Stokes equation Eq. 3.5-6 and Tables B.5,

6, 7 along with initial and boundary conditions.

From these one determines the pressure and velocity

distributions.

Circular Tube

Rework the tube-flow problem of Example 2.3-1 using the

equations of continuity and motion. This illustrates the use

of the tabulated equations for constant viscosity and

density in cylindrical coordinates, given in Appendix B.5.

SOLUTION

We postulate that v = zvz(r, z). This postulate implies that

there is no radial flow (vr = 0) and no tangential flow (v =

0), and that vz f ().

We assume that there is no change of velocity profile in z

direction.

Consequently, we can discard many terms from the

tabulated equations of change, leaving

Datum

plane

on r; hence the partial derivatives in the second term on

the right side of Eq. 3.6-4 can be replaced by ordinary

derivatives.

By using the modified pressure P = p - gh (where h is

the height below some arbitrary datum plane and g is a

constant), we avoid the necessity of calculating the

components of g in r and coordinates, and we obtain a

solution valid for any orientation of the axis of the tube.

alone, and the partial derivative in the first term of Eq.

3.6-4 may be replaced by an ordinary derivative.

For constant change of P against z, by introducing a

constant C0, Eq. 3.6-4 reduces to

can be integrated one operation after another on the left

side (do not "work out" the compound derivative there).

This gives

.

boundary conditions:

C2= 0 to obtain definite vz.. The resulting solutions are:

.

laminar-flow regime, and at locations not too near the tube entrance

and exit. For Re > about 2100, a turbulent-flow regime exists

downstream of the entrance region, and Eq. 3.6-13 is no longer

valid.

Set up the problem in Example 2.2-2 by using the

equations of Appendix B.5. This illustrates the use of the

equation of motion in terms of .

SOLUTION

As in Example 2.2-2 we postulate a steady-state flow

with constant density.

We postulate, as before, that the x- and y-components of

the velocity are zero (vx and vy = 0) and that vz = vz(x).

With these postulates, the equation of continuity is zero.

According to Table B.l, the only nonzero components of

are xz = zx = -(dvz/dx). The components of the equation

of motion in terms of are, from Table B.5,

.

in which f(y, z) is an arbitrary function. Equation 3.6-15

shows that f cannot be a function of y.

nearly constant at the prevailing atmospheric pressure patm.

Therefore, at the gas-liquid interface x = 0, the pressure is

also constant at the value patm. Consequently, f can be set

equal to patm, and we obtain finally from 3.6-14.

.

(p is function of x only). Equation 3.5-16 then becomes

.

which is the same as Eq. 2.2-10. The remainder of the

solution is the same as in 2.2.

Viscometer

The viscosity may also be determined by measuring the

torque required to turn a solid object in contact with a

fluid. The forerunner of all rotational viscometers is the

Couette instrument, which is sketched in Fig. 3.6-1.

Determine velocity distribution and shear stress for the

laminar, tangential flow of an incompressible fluid

between 2 co-axial vertical cylinders. Outer cylinder

rotates with angular velocity o (see Figure 3.6-1). Endeffects is negligible.

Solution

In steady-state laminar flow, fluid moves in circular

direction with velocity components vr = 0 and vz = 0.

There is no pressure gradient in direction (p = p(r,z)). It

is expected that p depends on z due to gravity and on r

due to centrifugal force.

For these postulates all the terms in the equation of

continuity are zero, and the components of the equation

of motion simplify to

p

0

gz

z

The first equation tells how the centrifugal force affects the

pressure.

The second equation gives the velocity distribution.

The third equation gives the effect of gravity on the

pressure (the hydrostatic effect)

For the problem at hand we need only the -component of

the equation of motion for velocity distribution

.

The boundary conditions are that the fluid does not slip at

the two cylindrical surfaces:

.

constants of integration, which are then inserted in Eq.

3.6-26. This gives

.

flux by using Table B.1:

the product of the inward momentum flux (-r), the

surface of the cylinder, and the lever arm, as follows:

.

makes it possible to determine the viscosity. The same

kind of analysis is available for other rotational

viscometers.

turbulence will occur. The critical Reynolds number

(oR2/), above which the system becomes turbulent, is

shown in Fig. 3.6-2 as a function of the radius ratio .

fixed and cause the inner cylinder to rotate with an angular

velocity i (the subscript "i" stands for inner). Then the

velocity distribution is

Eq. 3.6-20) and solving the same differential equation (Eq.

3.6-21), but with a different set of boundary conditions.

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