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DIRECT AND INDIRECT

SPEECH
Made by:
Ms. Anila Sohail Khan

DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH


DIRECT SPEECH
CHARACTERISTICS:
It is original quotation
of a talk
It is always placed
between two
quotation marks
It is always preceded
by Capital letter

Colon (:), Comma (,) are placed before


direct speech when the introductory
verb position is in the front
Comma (,) are placed after direct speech
when the introductory verb position is
placed after or between the direct
speech

The use of punctuation like exclamation


mark (!), question mark (?) point the
type of sentence of direct speech and it
does not change
Eg.
Where do you live? she asked
My mother says to my sister: Wash your
hands!
She yelled at me: Dont have the door
open!

It is a kind of reported sentence (reported


speech)
It retells ones talk or idea
It undergoes certain modification
It has three types of indirect speech
1. Imperative (Command/request)
2. Declarative (Statement)
3. Interrogative (question

1. Imperative (Command/request)
The Imperative is a command
Because of a command it does not tell the
subject and the verb in direct imperative
does not change

E.g. Shut the door


Let the door be shut
like go, sleep, open etc so in the indirect
speech is preceded by to infinitive)
namely to go, to sleep, to open

It also has non verb, so the reported


command is preceded by Be +
adjective/adverb! like: be quiet, be
happy, be here so in the Indirect
Speech it becomes to be quiet, to be
happy, to be here

POSITIVE IMPERATIVE
DIRECT SPEECH
She said, Go away!
Come here! she said.
I said,
Be quite! Be quiet!
she yelled at the
children.
She begged, Be
happy!
Please help me! she
told him

INDIRECT SPEECH
She ordered her to go
away .
She asked him to come
there.
She ordered the
children to be quiet
She requested to be
happy
She asked him to help
her

NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE:
DIRECT SPEECH
She said, Dont go
away!
Dont Come here!
she said
I said, Dont Be
noisy!
She begged, Dont
be lazy!

INDIRECT SPEECH
She told me not to
go away
She asked him not
to come there.
She begged us not
to be noisyI
She told him not to
worry about it

Declarative (Statement)
A. Pronoun and Possessive adjective

DIRECT SPEECH
INDIRECT
SPEECH

I
He/She

You
me/he/she/them/I/him/her

My
his/her

Our
their/our

Your
My/his/her

Declarative (Statement)
B. Adverb of time and Place

DIRECT SPEECH

now

today

tomorrow

next

INDIRECT SPEECH
then
that day
the next day
the day after
the following day
a day later
the after
the following

Declarative (Statement)

B. Adverb of time and Place


DIRECT SPEECH
INDIRECT SPEECH
last
the before
the previous
the preceding
ago
before
earlier
yesterday
the day before
the previous day
the preceeding day
the day before yesterday two days before
here
there
this
that
these
those

Declarative (Statement)
Tenses

DIRECT SPEECH INDIRECT


SPEECH
Present Simple Past Simple
Present Continuous Past Continuous
Present Perfect Past Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous
Past
Perfect Continuous

Declarative
(Statement)
C. Tenses

DIRECT SPEECH
INDIRECT SPEECH
Future Simple
Future Continuous
Continuous
Future Perfect
Future Perfect
Continuous Past

Past Future
Past Future
Past Future Perfect
Future Perfect
Continuous

Declarative (Statement)

C. Tenses
DIRECT SPEECHINDIRECT SPEECH
Past Simple
Past Perfect
Past Continuous Past Perfect
Continuous
Past Perfect
Past Perfect

Lets see the following changes

DIRECT SPEECH
INDIRECT SPEECH
Verb 1
Verb 2
Verb 2
Had + Verb 3
Is was
Am was
Are were
Have
had
Has
had
Do did
Does
did
Was/were
had been
Did had + verb 3

Can
May
Must
Shall
Will
Ought to + verb 1
been
Could + verb 1
been
Might
+ verb 1
been
Should + verb 1
been
Would + verb 1
been

could
might
had to
should
would
ought to + have + verb 3 /
could + have + verb 3 /
might + have + verb 3 /
should + have + verb3 /
would + have + verb 3 /

Examples:
DIRECT SPEECH
Ali: I will go now.
Rani: They love me.
Ive been writing, Dina
answered

Mother: I was sick


yesterday.

INDIRECT SPEECH
Ali said that he would
go then
Rani told me they loved
her
Dina answered that she
had been writing
Mother told that
she had been sick
the day before

3. Interrogative (question)
a. Preceded by Auxiliary
When the question is preceded by
auxiliary that needs yes/No answer it will
be used the conjunction if or whether
in the indirect speech
The steps how to make indirect speech:
The question sentence of the indirect
speech is firstly changed to be statement
It then follows the rules before

Example
DIRECT SPEECH
INDIRECT
SPEECH
Doctor: Do you usually take a nap?
It is firstly changed to be:
You usually take a nap
Doctor
asks
if/whether I
usually take a
nap

Example
DIRECT SPEECH
Mary: Are you a student?
It is firstly changed to be:

You are a student


INDIRECT SPEECH
Ratu asked if/whether I was a

student

Example
John: May I borrow your car?
Preceded by Question Word (QW)

It is firstly changed to be:

I may borrow your car


INDIRECT SPEECH
John asked if he might borrow my
John asked whether he might borrow my

a. Preceded by Question Words


In the question using Question Word
(QW)
To form indirect speech the question is
firstly changed to be statement
QW: what, when, where, which, why, who,
whom, etc. are used as conjunction

Example
Andi: How do you spell your name?

- It is firstly changed to be:

You spell your name

INDIRECT SPEECH

Andi asked how I spelt my name

Example
DIRECT SPEECH
Sophia: Where can you keep your money safely?

It is firstly changed to be:


You can keep your money safely
INDIRECT SPEECH
- Sophia asked me where I could keep my
money safely.

THANK YOU VERY MUCH