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Theoretical basis of inbreed

strains
Sergio
Iván Zamudio Quevedo A01163304
Mario Alfonso Arenas
Hardy-Weinberg
Principle
García A01162581

Introduction
Laboratory mice have a variety of functions; they are generally used for the research of diseases; from initial
manifestation to the possibility of the synthesis of a cure. On the other hand, some mice require certain qualities
or traits needed for the research; such as muscular mass, cardiac condition, certain genes in their DNA, etc. For
such traits, selective breeding is used in order to “achieve” such mice.

 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
Firstly, some basic genetics must me
understood. Alleles refer to genes that codify
for the same trait or protein product, but
have a different sequence (say, gene A and
gene B are different but codify for the same
thing).
Now, the probabilities of each allele are
different (to simplify certain conditions, noncommon cases are omitted); generally
speaking, one comes from the mother whilst
the other comes from the father. As such, the
probability is established as follows: A+B=1;
the combinations for the alleles can be the
following: AA, BB or AB. Doing the sum of the
probability of the combinations, the following
binomial distribution is established:
A2+2AB+B2=1
The latter equation, however, has certain
limitations; to which the Hardy-Weinberg
equilibrium is established.

The population contains an “infinite”
amount of individuals

There is no genotype that influences in
mate choice

There are no mutations or natural selection

No migration both in or out of the
populations

Physical conditions of all present individuals
are equal

The primary objective is to avoid the AB trait
mice, and instead obtain either AA or BB;
which at this moment will be referred to as
low trait and high trait respectively. For this to
occur, there has to be a definition for inbred
strain.

References: Whushaw, Ian Q. & Kolb, Bryan (2005). The behavior of the laboratory
rat. Oxford University Press, New York.

Inbred strain
In other words, there is a loss of AB genes
present in mice after multiple generations of
breeding. The coefficient of inbreeding (F) is
observed by the following equation (in which i
refers to the initial generation of AB genes while
c is the generation of AB genes after x
generations):

Eventually, after approximately 20 generations;
there is very little heterozygosity (AB genes)
within the mice.

The benefits of such conditions are that a breed
of mice can be “created” without the
disturbance of a variety of conditions; the entire
process is practically controlled from start to
finish and the results obtained are very
favorable.

Development of models
Two way artificial selection can be used to crate low and high
lines widely different for a trait from which inbreed strains can
be hence produced. To make a general approach to selection,
its procedure begins in a selective breeding by measuring the
trait of interest in a large founder population that has wide
genetic heterogeneity. At each subsequent generation, progeny
are phenotyped and selected as the best for that trait and bred
to create the following generation. This is repeated until the
change in the population mean produced by selection response
plateaus, which normally determines exhaustion of additive
genetic variance for the trait.

The degree of heterozigosity can be increased above the
random bred by generating contributions from each family
more equal that can be achieved by tang the best female and
male from each mating and using them as parents in the next
generation.

Conclusions
The practicality of such conditions can be considerably useful when
doing hereditary studies when involving identical alleles. For instance, a
study in which the entire population needs to have hypertension can be
achieved considering the conditions established previously mentioned;
allowing an easier study for the disease and its peculiarities. On the
other hand, (and taking on basis the example mentioned throughout the
work) a species with "superior" qualities can be obtained; to which they
can be used for a variety of things.
The main point of this is to be able to control the hereditary conditions
of the populations to achieve a certain end objective, that is to be able
to "replicate" mice with certain physiological characteristics, explain the
hereditary conditions to which a disease can appear, amongst other