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•A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry.
The European Union (EU) Floods Directive defines a flood as a covering by water of
land not normally covered by water. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may
also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Flooding may occur as an overflow of water
from water bodies, such as a river or lake, in which the water overtops or
breaks levees, resulting in some of that water escaping its usual boundaries, or it
may occur due to an accumulation of rainwater on saturated ground in an areal
flood. While the size of a lake or other body of water will vary with seasonal changes
in precipitation and snow melt, these changes in size are unlikely to be considered
significant unless they flood property or drown domestic animals.
•Floods can also occur in rivers when the flow rate exceeds the capacity of the river
channel, particularly at bends or meanders in the waterway. Floods often cause
damage to homes and businesses if they are in the natural flood plains of rivers.
While riverine flood damage can be eliminated by moving away from rivers and
other bodies of water, people have traditionally lived and worked by rivers because
the land is usually flat and fertile and because rivers provide easy travel and access
to commerce and industry.
•Some floods develop slowly, while others such as flash floods, can develop in just a
few minutes and without visible signs of rain. Additionally, floods can be local,
impacting a neighborhood or community, or very large, affecting entire river basins.

Destruction caused by floods

Safety measures to be taken before
a flood
• Flooding occurs most commonly from heavy rainfall when natural
watercourses do not have the capacity to convey excess water.
However, floods are not always caused by heavy rainfall. They can
result from other phenomena, particularly in coastal areas where
inundation can be caused by a storm surge associated with a
tropical cyclone, a tsunami or a high tide coinciding with higher than
normal river levels. Dam failure, triggered for example by an
earthquake, will result in flooding of the downstream area, even in
dry weather conditions.
• Other factors which may contribute to flooding include:
• Volume, spatial distribution, intensity and duration of rainfall over a
• the capacity of the watercourse or stream network to convey runoff
• catchment and weather conditions prior to a rainfall event
• ground cover
• topography
• tidal influences.

Safety measures to be taken during
a flood

If you are living in a flood prone area, you should elevate and
reinforce your home to protect yourself and your property from flood
If your living area is susceptible to flooding, you should elevate
electric panel, water heater, furnace etc. 
To prevent flood water from blocking the drains of your home, sewer
taps should be installed with appropriate check valves. 
You should construct barriers like floodwalls, beams etc to prevent
flood water from entering into your building. This will help greatly to
prevent flood damage. 
You should also seal the walls of your basement with waterproofing
compounds so as to avoid seepage. 
If you have been warned of an impending flood, you should watch
television or public communication media to gather more information
about the disaster to come. 
If you have been warned of a flash flooding, then you should not
waste time waiting for instructions to evacuate but should move to a
higher ground as quickly as possible.
If you are preparing to evacuate, then you should secure your home.
If you have the time, move the valuables and essentials to an

Safety measures to be taken after a
•  Do no go back to your home as soon as the flood water
recedes. You should go back to your home, only when it is
declared safe to return to the flooded areas. 
• Do not turn on or start using utilities like power supply, water
supply, gas supply etc immediately after a flood. Start using
them only after it is declared safe to use them or an
electrician has checked them. 
• Before starting living in your home and using your personal
and household properties, you should clean, disinfect and dry
out them. This will also help to prevent flood damage to a
great extent. 
• If you are living in a flood prone area, it is advisable to
have flood insurance for your family and property. This will
help to reduce the cost of restoration after flood. 

Primary effects

The primary effects of flooding include loss of life, damage
to buildings and other structures, including
bridges, sewerage systems, roadways, and canals.
Floods also frequently damage power transmission and
sometimes power generation, which then has knock-on
effects caused by the loss of power. This includes loss of
drinking water treatment and water supply, which may
result in loss of drinking water or severe water
contamination. It may also cause the loss of sewage
disposal facilities. Lack of clean water combined
with human sewage in the flood waters raises the risk
of waterborne diseases, which can include typhoid, giardia,
 cryptosporidium, cholera and many other diseases
depending upon the location of the flood.
Damage to roads and transport infrastructure may make it
difficult to mobilize aid to those affected or to provide
emergency health treatment.
Flood waters typically inundate farm land, making the land
unworkable and preventing crops from being planted or

Done by,
Amritha J
Devapriya Mohan
Karunya R Nair
Parvathi Ajayan
Revathy S Nair
Sulaikha S
Varsha V S