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P M V Subbarao

Professor

Mechanical Engineering Department

More Ideas for better fuel

1872, Dr Franz Stikze’s Paradox

Condition for Compact Gas Turbine Power Plant

dwnet

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d 0

0 1 T03

d c pT01

0

dwnet

0 T01

0

d 0

d 0

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1

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d 0

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max c p T0 max 2 T0 maxT0 min 1 .max c pT0 min 2 1 T0 min T0 min wnet . T0 max 1 c pT0 min d T0 min 0 d 0 1 2 0 T0 max 1 0 T0 min T0 max 0 1 T0 min 0 max 0 T0 max T0 min T0 max T0 max wnet .

max .max qin T0 exhaust 0 max 2 T0 maxT0 min 1 T0 max T0 maxT0 min 1 T0 maxT0 min 1 T0 max T0 maxT0 min T0 max T0 maxT0 min 0.max c p T0 max 2 T0 maxT0 min 1 compact wnet .max compact qin T wnet .At maximum power: wnet .

Should I prefer high Pressure Ratio for Efficient Plant? Why the plant is compact at this condition? What else can be inferred form this condition? .Important Comments: What if I am not interested in Compactness.

the roots of the last two stages are also cooled. with an efficiency of 35.The state-of-the-art • • • • • • • • • • The newer large industrial gas turbines size have increased and capable of generating as much as 200 MW at 50 Hz. and the first two rotor stages and the first three stator stages are cooled. and the pressure ratio is 16:1. The turbine entry temperature is 11000C and the exhaust temperature is 5250C. The turbine entry temperature has increased to 12600C. The pressure ratio is 15:1.7%. The turbine has five stages. Typical simple cycle efficiencies on natural gas are 35%. . The ABB GT 13 E2 is rated at 164 MW gross output on natural gas. The combustion system is designed for low Nox production. The dry Nox is less than 25 ppm on natural gas.

• Siemens power corporation described their model V84. • The turbine entry temperature is 12900C and the exhaust temperature is 550 C.3. • Six burners designed for low Nox emissions are installed in each chamber. • The turbine has four stages and the first three rotating stages are air cooled.1%. The pressure ratio is 16:1. • This is rated at 152 MW at an efficiency of 36. . • The effectiveness of the cooling is improved by intercooling the cooling air after it is with drawn from the compressor.

Higher compressor efficiency and capability . Turbine entry temperature is 1288 C. This unit generates 215 MW at an efficiency of 35%. The engine uses an 18 stage compressor with an overall compression ratio of order of 20:1. . The aims are: . These large high efficiency units can be used for peak lopping purposes. The research for more efficient gas turbine-based power generation cycles has been underway for some time. The gas turbine has three stages. with the first two stages cooled.Higher turbine entry gas temperature.• • • • • • • • General Electric and European Gas Turbines have jointly developed the MS9001F 50Hz engine.

They pictured the program with increasing in firing temperature up to over 1427 C and changes in cycle.S. humid air turbine. massive moisture injection and chemical recuperation. reheat combustor and chemical recuperation. with low Nox and suitable operating costs at the end of a 10-year program. steam injection. reheat combustors. The U. including intercooling.• • • • • The different manufactures participated and initiated the collaborative advanced gas turbine. as intercooling. Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a development program called the advanced turbine system (ATS). The outcome of their effort include a variety of advanced cycle options. . The aim of ATS is to achieve over 60% efficiency.

to 15% O2.7 MW* Gross Electrical efficiency 36.dry) < 25 vppm .9 % Gross Heat rate 9251 Btu/kWh Turbine speed 3600 rpm Compressor pressure ratio 32:1 Exhaust gas flow 445 kg/s Exhaust gas temperature 612 °C NOx emissions (corr.GT24 (ISO 2314 : 1989) Fuel Natural gas Frequency 60 Hz Gross Electrical output 187.

7 MW* Gross Electrical efficiency 36. to 15% O2.9 % Gross Heat rate 9251 9756 Btu/kWh kJ/kWh Turbine speed 3600 rpm Compressor pressure ratio 32:1 Exhaust gas flow 445 kg/s Exhaust gas temperature 612 °C NOx emissions (corr.Fuel Natural gas Frequency 60 Hz Gross Electrical output 187.dry) < 25 vppm .

who founded the science of thermodynamics. and recommended passing it under a water boiler. – He noted that usable heat would be available in the exhaust. – Carnot realized that the cylinder walls would require cooling to permit continuous operation.The Ideal Machine • 1824: Sadi Carnot. – Later. Diesel thought he could avoid this. identified several fundamental ideas that would be incorporated in later internal combustion engines: – He noted that air compressed by a ratio of 15 to 1 would be hot enough (200°C) to ignite dry wood. . – He recommended compressing the air before combustion. Fuel could then be added by "an easily invented injector". but found out the hard way.

The wet compression (WC) cycle The steam injected gas turbine (STIG) cycle The integrated WC & STIG (SWC) cycle Themo-chemical Recuperation cycles . 2.Developments in Gas Turbine Cycles 1. 4. 3.

• A gas turbine compressor consumes about 30 to 50% of work produced by the turbine.Wet compression • One of the most effective ways to increase the gas turbine power output is to reduce the amount of work required for its compressor. .

The wet compression (WC) cycle Fuel Combustor G Compressor Water Injection Turbine Inlet Duct Intake Air .

Representing wet compression process on P-V diagram W isothermal = f-1-2T-g-f (isothermal) Wwet compression = f-1-2K-g-f (wet compression) W isentropic = f-1-2S-g-f (isentropic) W polytropic = f-1-2n-g-f (polytropic) P P g f 2 2T 2k P 0 1 2s 2n 1 V .

2. The wet compression cycle has the following benefits over the simple cycle. 3.The wet compression (WC) cycle • 1. Lower compressor work Higher turbine work Higher cycle efficiency .

R=Gas constant of humid air kJ/kg k.ISENTROPIC INDEX OF WET COMPRESSION PROCESS • Isentropic index of wet compression can be obtained from the equation Where L dw k 1 R dT k 1 k=Isentropic index of wet compression. . dw/dT = Evaporative rate kg/k. L= Latent heat kJ/kg.

n=polytropic index of actual dry air compression .ACTUAL WET COMPRESSION INDEX • Actual wet compression index can be obtained from the equation m L dw 1 n m 1 1 R dT 1 n 1 Where m=polytropic index of actual wet compression process.

Compressor work with wet compression • 1. The higher is the pressure ratio. 3. more the saving in compressor work. • • Compressor work with wet compression is a function of Pressure ratio . Wet compression work is much lower than that of dry air compression work. . Evaporative rate dw/dT and Geometry of the compressor. 2.

Variation of wet compression work with pressure ratio

(Evaporative rate dw/dT=7.5e-4 kg/k)

**VARIATION OF WET COMPRESSION WORK WITH THE
**

EVAPORATIVE RATE FOR A GIVEN PRESSURE

RATIO

Pressure ratio = 7

**REAL WET COMPRESSION WORK
**

CONSIDERING OFF DESIGN BEHAVIOUR

**• For calculation purposes, if the design (dry) value of the
**

polytropic efficiency is assumed to be maintained throughout the

compression process, it is tantamount to the operation of the

compressor at increased operating pressure ratio.

812 370.415 3 0.649 370.218 .6017 255.2 343.5737 284.000 371.269 343. ratio kJ/kg Dry work KJ/kg 1 0 10.5597 316.00075 11.683 4 0.00015 11. g work kg/k Pr.Comparison of Work Input For Wet and Dry Compression Considering Off-Design Behaviour Sl no Evaporati Operatin Real wet ve rate.269 2 0.00035 11.

ACTUAL WET COMPRESSION WORK CONSIDERING OFF DESIGN BEHAVIOUR .

9 % Gross Heat rate 9251 9756 Btu/kWh kJ/kWh Turbine speed 3600 rpm Compressor pressure ratio 32:1 Exhaust gas flow 445 kg/s Exhaust gas temperature 612 °C NOx emissions (corr. to 15% O2.Fuel Natural gas Frequency 60 Hz Gross Electrical output 187.7 MW* Gross Electrical efficiency 36.dry) < 25 vppm .

Super Heated Steam Water .

The steam injected gas turbine (STIG) cycle Exhaust Injection Steam water pump HRSG Fuel Combustor G Compressor Intake Air Turbine .

• In a steam injected gas turbine (STIG).e. • STIG cycle gives higher net work out put than the WC cycle up to a pressure ratio of 7. the heat of exhaust gasses of the gas turbine is used to produce steam in a heat recovery steam generator. .The steam injected gas turbine (STIG) cycle • Steam injection into the combustion chamber of a gas turbine is one of the ways to achieve power augmentation and efficiency gain. in the compressor discharge). • The steam is injected into the combustion chamber or before entering the combustion chamber (i. • STIG cycle has higher cycle efficiency than the WC cycle.

The integrated WC & STIG (SWC) cycle Exhaust Injection Steam water pump HRSG Fuel Combustor G Water injection Compressor Inlet Duct Turbine Intake Air .

. • But its cycle efficiency is less than that of the STIG cycle owing to the need for higher heat input.The integrated WC & STIG (SWC) cycle • It has the combined benefit of the advantage of higher efficiency of STIG cycle and higher net work output of WC cycle.

WC.COMPARISION BETWEEN SIMPLE. STIG AND INTEGRATED WC & STIG CYCLES .

Cycle efficiency versus pressure ratio .

Net work output versus pressure ratio .

work kg/k output.04 0 WC 11 7.11 38.Comparison of typical parameters of simple. PR MW Cycle efficienc y % Fuel mass flow rate.43 54.49 SWC 11 7.5e-4 303. kg/sec simple 11 0 151.35 15.28 11.63 12. kg/sec Steam mass flow rate.04 0 STIG 11 0 215.65 39.16 18.75 35.5e-4 232.13 31.STIG and SWC cycles.49 . cycle Pressure Evaporat Net ratio ive rate. WC.15 54.

They are: • Economic feasibility of these cycles need to be studied. • The difficulties involved in designing a turbine to handle large mass flow rates of combustion gasses and steam.Future work There are many areas and challenges which can be explored further to this work. • Compressor life reduction due to water injection. (because of the off design running conditions that prevail in reality). . • The effect of steam injection in reducing NOX emissions.

A tree converts disorder to order with a little help from the Sun .

is: . CnHm. and the overall reaction for a general hydrocarbon fuel.Clues from Nature to get Better Fuel • One of such clue is Thermo Chemical Recuperation • The major reactions involved in Steam-TCR are well known.

plugging of flow paths and carbon losses.The formation of carbon must be minimized in the operation of the reformer to minimize fouling of heat transfer surfaces. blinding of catalyst particles. .

and the formation of a low-thermal-value fuel gas replacing the high-thermal-value turbine fuel.The theoretical merits of the Steam-TCR concept are based on the overall endothermic nature of the reforming chemical reactions. with both factors contributing to improved efficiency .

Steam-TCR Power Plant Cycle Diagram .

.

Flue Gas-TCR Power Plant Cycle Diagram .

.

Model TCR Cycle .

52 N 2 CO2 2 H 2O 7. CH 4 2O2 7.52 N 2 3H 2 CO H 2O 7.52 N 2 CO2 4 H 2O 15.04 N 2 .The chemical Reactions in Flue Gas TCR Cycle • Combustion of Methane with 100% theoretical air.52 N 2 • Combustion of reformed flue gas : 3H 2 CO H 2O 7.52 N 2 2O2 7.52 N 2 Thermochemical recuperator: Reforming of Flue Gas Only CO2 2 H 2O 7.

The chemical Reactions in Flue Gas & Methane TCR Cycle • Thermochemical recuperator: Reforming of Flue gas with methane CH 4 2CO2 4 H 2O 15.52 N 2 3CO2 6 H 2O 22.52 N 2 • Combustion of reformed flue gas and methane mixture: 3H 2 CO 2CO2 3H 2O 15.56 N 2 .04 N 2 2O2 7.04 N 2 3H 2 CO 2CO2 3H 2O 7.

no heat transfer.out m rfuel hrfuel m fuel h fuel m fluegas h fluegas . change in kinetic and potential energies are negligible m in hin m out hout Energy lost by turbine exhaust = Increase in energy of reformed ga m g hg .in hg .First Law Analysis of Thermochemical Recuperator Cooled exhust Turbine Exhaust Reformed fuel Fuel & Flue gas Q CV m in h V 2 gz m in 2 h V gz out out W CV No work transfer.

52 N 2 x 2 y 1 3 3H 2O m g hg .52 N 2 x 3H 2 xCO y CO2 7.Generalized Recuperation Reaction xCH 4 y CO2 2 H 2O 7.out m rfuel hrfuel m fuel h fuel m fluegas h fluegas .in hg .

Analysis of Reformation Process .

.

.

.

.

7MW 141.8MW Efficiency 32.2MW 44.5MW 8.Study of Optimal TCR Cycle Parameter Flue Gas Recirculation Simple Brayton TCR Brayton 0% 70% 462 kg/s 135 kg/s 155.4kg/s 7.6% Steam generation 252kg/s 41kg/s Mass flow rate of air Power input to compressor Fuel Flue gas compressor Net Power output .1% 38.35kg/s -- 114MW 134.

E/GDP: Energy generated per gross domestic product. the energy intensity. • Power Generated CO2 is responsible.Reduction of CO2 Emissions • Increasing CO2 content in atmosphere is one of the factor for Global Warming. reflecting standard of living. CO2/E : Emission per unit energy generation. • Kaya’s Equation: CO2 emission to atomosphere POP • • • • • • GDP E CO2 S POP GDP E Where POP : Population that demands and consume energy GDP/POP: Per capita gross domestic product. the carbon intensity S: Natural and induced removal emission product from atmosphere into a sink. .

Material Sinks: Anthropogenic Resoruces .Carbon dioxide Sinks • • • Biosphere sinks : Natural Resources Geosphere Sinks: Natural Resources with anthropogenic intervention.

Carbon Sequesterizaton .

Partial Oxidation Cycles .

Partial Oxidation Cycle .

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