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Research

Practice
What is Research?
Research Connection to Practice
NURS 335

What is Research?

Basic Research

youre interested in answering questions

(Field, 2009,

p. 2)

Research Process
Data

Initial Observation

Generate Theory

Identify Variables

Generate
Hypotheses

Measure Variables

Collect Data

Analyze Data
(Field,
2009)
Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Modern Nursing Profession is


Based on Research

1850s

Crimean War
Sanitation
Used research and
statistics to improve
patient outcomes
through:

Establishing standards
of care
Bathing patients
Clean dressings
Adequate diet
Psychological needs

Purpose of Nursing Research

to build body of nursing knowledge, thereby


promoting improvement in patient outcomes

(Cannon

& Robinson, 2011, p. 38)

Cannon, S., & Robinson, M. (2011). Overview of research. In C. Boswell & S. Cannon (Eds.), Introduction to
nursing research:
Incorporating evidence-based practice (2nd ed., pp. 33-54). Sudbury, MA: Jones

Brief History of Nursing Research

Early 1900s

1940s

Emergence of clinical pathways


National Center for Nursing established

1990s

Focus on development of nursing profession

1980s

Focus on models and frameworks for practice

1970s

First nursing research text published

1960s

First federal support of nursing research in 1946

1952

Focus on nursing education

Publication of IOMs To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System


Research based-practice

2000s

Outcomes based-practice
EBP

Nursing Research
SOURCES

Academia

Healthcare Settings

TYPES

Educational

Clinical

Research Costs
Sources for
funding
Federal/Local
Government
Private Foundations
Professional
Organizations

Money

Current Pushes in Nursing Research


National

Institute of Nursing Research 2011 Strategic

Plan

Enhance health promotion and disease prevention


Improve quality of life by managing symptoms of acute and
chronic illness
Improve palliative and end-of-life care
Enhance innovation in science and practice
Develop the next generation of nurse scientists
(http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/organization/NINR.htm)

General/Other

Topics

Geriatrics
Interprofessional Education/Research
Nursing Educational Research
Mixed Methods Research
Evidence-Based Practice

Connection to Practice

Evidence-based Practice

. . . EBP is defined as a process of using confirmed


evidence (research and quality improvement), decision
making, and nursing expertise to guide the delivery of
holistic patient care by nurses. (Cannon & Boswell, 2011, p. 6)

Requires evaluating and using evidence

Where does the evidence come from?

Cannon, S., & Boswell, C. (2011). Connection between research and evidence-based practice. In C. Boswell & S.
Cannon (Eds.), Introduction to
nursing research: Incorporating evidence-based practice (2nd ed., pp. 1-31). Sudbury,

Levels of Evidence

Stillwell et al. (2010) described hierarchy of levels of


evidence as:
Level 1- Systematic review & meta-analysis of RCTs
Level 2- One or more RCT
Level 3- Controlled trial (no randomization)
Level 4- Case control or cohort study
Level 5- Systematic review of descriptive &
qualitative studies
Level 6- Single descriptive or qualitative
study
Level- 7 Expert opinion

Stillwell, S.B., Fineout-Overholt, E., Melnyk, B.M., & Williamson, K.M. (2010). Searching for evidence: Strategies to help
you conduct a successful search. AJN, 110, 41-47.

However . . .

Nursing profession uses a broader definition of


ways of knowing (besides just
scientific/quantitative evidence) to include: (Ferguson &
Day, 2005)

Aesthetic
Personal
Ethical
Sociopolitical

Nursing profession also recognizes Mixed Methods


research as generating evidence pertinent for
nursing practice.

Ferguson, L., & Day, R. A. (2005). Evidence-based nursing education: Myth or reality? Journal of Nursing
Education, 44, p. 107-115.

Barriers to Using Research & EBP

Education

Beliefs/Attitudes

Majority of practicing nurses have an associate degree


or diploma

Negative attitudes from nursing population

Support/Resources

Using research requires time and resources

Summary Points

Heart of research is asking questions and trying to find


answers.

Purpose of nursing research is to improve patient


outcomes.

There is a connection between research and practice.

Nursing research uses multiple methodologies to


generate evidence for nursing practice.

Currently there are barriers in using research and EBP in


clinical setting.