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CELL BIOLOGY
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Rate of waste production D. Rate of oxygen consumption 8812-6001 18 . Rate of exchange of materials B. Rate of heat production C.D. 2. The correlation between the height and diameter of the trees What is proportional to a cell’s surface area? A.

SHORT ANSWER 19 .

g. they are undifferentiated / unspecialized. 20 . [3] Example: Source: stem cells obtained from bone marrow. Detail: patient’s bone marrow cells (are killed and) replaced with the stem cells. retain the capacity to divide. leukaemia / heart disease / diabetes / other possibility. have the ability to differentiate (along different pathways) / are multipotent/pluripotent/totipotent. bone marrow / cord blood / inner cell mass of embryo / embryonic stem cells. Mark only the first process on each line if more than two processes are listed. (cell) growth / increase in the number of organelles/specific organelle mentioned. Mark only the first process on each line if more than two processes are listed. name of condition that is treated using the stem cells e. (a) (i) (ii) (b) (c) M11/4/BIOLO/SP2/ENG/TZ1/XX/M interphase because no (individual) chromosomes are visible / genetic material visible as chromatin / chromosomes/DNA has not condensed / nuclear envelope/nucleolus/nucleus is visible DNA synthesis/replication/OWTTE. transcription/synthesis of RNA. Condition: leukaemia. one precise detail of how the stem cells replace/ replenish (differentiated) cells that are the cause of the condition. [1] [2 max] [2 max] named source of stem cells e.g. Do not accept error carried forward if mitosis is the answer in (i).–7– 4.

no centrioles centrioles. d.–8– 2. protein pumps change shape (as they transport molecules). c. due to random motion/kinetic energy of molecules / no ATP involved. c. d. no lysosomes lysosomes. large (central) vacuole no large (central)vacuole. [2 max] Answers do not need to be shown in a table format. Plant cells (a) M12/4/BIOLO/SP2/ENG/TZ1/XX/M Animal cells a. e. diffusion continues until concentrations are equal (across the membrane). specific for the solute/molecule transported. b. b. d. b. cell wall no cell wall. diffusion is (passive) movement (of particles) from high to low concentration. c. (can) move solutes against a concentration gradient. chloroplasts/plastids no chloroplasts/plastids. (b) (c) a. membranes are porous/permeable allowing diffusion. [2 max] a. [2 max] 21 . using energy/ATP.

d. (d) 410 min day–1 (accept answers in the range of 400 min day–1 to 420 min day–1) (e) a. b. before menopause. older/skilled women could provide more food when they no longer reproduce. if women share the food that they forage then the Grandmother Hypothesis would be supported / vice versa. for molecules that cannot pass through the phospholipid bilayer. post-menopausal/older women do more of the foraging. movement down the concentration gradient / from high to low concentration. b. breathing capacity drops more rapidly than cardiac capacity / vice versa. [2 max] (f) 2. d. allows younger women to use time/energy to reproduce and care for offspring. fertility stops first at 50 years old whereas other systems decline more slowly. d. [2 max] a. b. through channel proteins/ion channels. passive transport / it requires no energy from the cell / no ATP.b. c. c. this could provide more food for offspring/group leading to greater success for the group. c. [3 max] (a) (b) (c) [1] (i) osmosis [1] (ii) active transport [1] a. e. (in competition with other groups) this group would survive to pass on the genes for menopause. [3 max] [1] vesicles / vacuoles / endosome 22 . difficult to determine as there is an overlap between time spent in different category of groups. breathing capacity drops less rapidly than cardiac capacity / vice versa. channel is specific/selective to the ion/molecule being transported. c. after menopause.

starch granules only in plant cells. centrioles only in animal cells. (a) (b) 3. [2 max] [2 max] anaphase (occurs at an) intermediate (stage). chloroplasts only in plant cells. Do not allow events other than those in anaphase. [2 max] 23 .  D has pores) cell wall only in plant cells.S. aureus inhibited more by modified human surfactant which has no protein than by the other (surfactants) which have protein. by shortening of spindle microtubules. 2. (sister) chromatids/chromosomes separate. dragged/pulled/movement to separate poles. (i) (ii) phase A: phase B: centromeres split/break. adenine pairs with thymine and cytosine pairs with guanine. Do not accept answer without reference to proteins. (large) vacuole in plant cells. (both needed) prophase (occurs at an) early (stage). (a) any visible characteristic that distinguishes between B and  (eg (three pairs of)  the rest. tumours / cancer (c) conservation of the base sequence of DNA.  legs/no legs) characteristic that distinguishes  (eg body divided into many segments /  between C and D.  body not divided into many segments) characteristic specific to C and different  (eg C had cylinder shape and  characteristic specific to D. (both needed) (b) [3 max] [2] [2 max] [1]  (do not accept   initials only) both (daughter) cells/DNA strands produced have identical genetic inf ormation.

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d o e s n o t c u re th e d is e a s e . is o p re n a lin e p ro d u c e s th e le a s t m R N A fo r C X C L 1 2 .– 7 – N 1 1 /4 /B IO L O /H P 2 /E N G /T Z 0 /X X /M SE C T IO N A 1. C X C L 1 2 in h ib itio n d o e s n o t p re v e n t o c c u rre n c e o f d ia b e te s (ju s t d e la y s it) / e v e n tu a lly th e s a m e le v e l o f d ia b e te s . [2 m a x ] (d ) m R N A is tra n s la te d to p ro te in / in v o lv e d in p ro te in s y n th e s is (e ) c le n b u te ro l a n d is o p r e n a lin e b o th p r o d u c e m o r e s te m c e lls th a n c o n tro l. [1 ] m o re s te m c e lls a re fo rm e d in c o n tro l / je t b lo o d s tre a m / g re a te r ra n g e in c o n tro l. in th e firs t 2 5 / u p to 2 6 /2 7 /2 8 w e e k s . (f) (i) (ii) (g ) [1 ] [3 m a x ] C X C L 1 2 in h ib itio n in itia lly d e c re a s e s o c c u rre n c e o f d ia b e te s . lig h t p e r io d in c o n tro l. (a ) (b ) (c ) (i) 8 3 ( a l l o w w h o l e n u m b e r a n s w e r s i n th e r a n g e o f 8 2 to 8 4 ) [1 ] (ii) 5 (a llo w 4 ) D o n o t a l l o w a n s w e r s w i th tw o d i ffe r e n t n u m b e r s . w h e re a s g re a te r c e lls a re re le a s e d la te r in tim e in je t la g . c le n b u te ro l p ro d u c e s th e s a m e a m o u n t o f m R N A fo r C X C L 1 2 a s c o n tro l. c le n b u te ro l re le a s e s fe w e r s te m c e lls th a n is o p re n a lin e / is o p re n a lin e re le a s e s th e m o s t s te m c e lls . (h y p o th e s is s u p p o rte d ) if p a tie n t is je t-la g g e d a s m o re s te m c e lls a re p ro d u c e d in d a rk p e rio d . g ra p h is s h ifte d to th e rig h t in je t la g / s te m la g re d u c e s th e re le a s e o f s te m c e lls in to o re re g u la r p a tte rn . (h y p o th e s is n o t s u p p o rte d ) in c o n tro l a s p e a k o f s te m c e lls o c c u rs d u rin g lig h t p e rio d /lo w e s t n u m b e r d u r in g d a rk p e rio d . d e la y s o n s e t o f d ia b e te s / a llo w s s te m c e ll m o b iliz a tio n / a llo w s is le t r e g e n e r a tio n . g ra p h is rh y th m ic in c o n tro l / c o n tro l h a s m g re a te r n u m b e r o f s te m c e lls p ro d u c e d in n u m b e r in d a rk p e rio d in je t la g . [2 m a x ] (h y p o th e s is s u p p o rte d in c o n tro l) if s te m c e lls a re h a rv e s te d to w a rd s th e e n d o f th e d a rk p e rio d / (h y p o th e s is s u p p o rte d ) a s s te m c e lls s ta rt in c re a s in g in d a rk p e rio d . [2 ] C X C L 1 2 b re a k d o w n a llo w s s te m c e ll m o b iliz a tio n re d u c in g in c id e n c e o f d ia b e te s / s te m c e lls fro m th e b o n e m a rro w c a n re g e n e ra te th e is le ts (in p a n c re a s ) [1 ] is o p re n a lin e is a n in h ib ito r o f C X C L 1 2 / in h ib its s y n th e s is o f C X C L 1 2 m R N A . [2 m a x ] 25 .

[2 ] C X C L 1 2 b re a k d o w n a llo w s s te m c e ll m o b iliz a tio n re d u c in g in c id e n c e o f d ia b e te s / s te m c e lls fro m th e b o n e m a rro w c a n re g e n e ra te th e is le ts (in p a n c re a s ) [1 ] is o p re n a lin e is a n in h ib ito r o f C X C L 1 2 / in h ib its s y n th e s is o f C X C L 1 2 m R N A . C X C L 1 2 in h ib itio n d o e s n o t p re v e n t o c c u rr e n c e o f d ia b e te s (ju s t d e la y s it) / e v e n tu a lly th e s a m e le v e l o f d ia b e te s . [2 m a x ] (d ) m R N A is tra n s la te d to p ro te in / in v o lv e d in p ro te in s y n th e s is (e ) c le n b u te ro l a n d is o p r e n a lin e b o th p r o d u c e m o re s te m c e lls th a n c o n tro l. d o e s n o t c u re th e d is e a s e . c le n b u te ro l re le a s e s f e w e r s te m c e lls th a n is o p r e n a lin e / is o p re n a lin e re le a s e s th e m o s t s te m c e lls . (h y p o th e s is n o t s u p p o rte d ) in c o n tro l a s p e a k o f s te m c e lls o c c u rs d u rin g lig h t p e rio d /lo w e s t n u m b e r d u r in g d a rk p e rio d . in th e firs t 2 5 / u p to 2 6 /2 7 /2 8 w e e k s . is o p re n a lin e p ro d u c e s th e le a s t m R N A fo r C X C L 1 2 .(c ) g ra p h is s h ifte d to th e rig h t in je t la g / s te m c e lls a re re le a s e d la te r in tim e in je t la g . c le n b u te ro l p ro d u c e s th e s a m e a m o u n t o f m R N A f o r C X C L 1 2 a s c o n tro l. d e la y s o n s e t o f d ia b e te s / a llo w s s te m c e ll m o b iliz a tio n / a llo w s is le t r e g e n e r a tio n . [2 m a x ] 26 . (f) (i) (ii) (g ) [1 ] [3 m a x ] C X C L 1 2 in h ib itio n in itia lly d e c re a s e s o c c u rre n c e o f d ia b e te s . (h y p o th e s is s u p p o rte d ) if p a tie n t is je t-la g g e d a s m o re s te m c e lls a r e p ro d u c e d in d a rk p e rio d . [2 m a x ] (h y p o th e s is s u p p o rte d in c o n tro l) if s te m c e lls a r e h a rv e s te d to w a r d s th e e n d o f th e d a rk p e rio d / (h y p o th e s is s u p p o rte d ) a s s te m c e lls s ta rt in c re a s in g in d a rk p e rio d .

LONG ANSWE R 27 .

(naked) DNA of main chromosome is located in the nucleoid (region). whereas pyruvate stays in the cytoplasm for processing under anaerobic conditions. carbohydrates are more easily taken out of storage making their energy more quickly available.– 11 – 7. plasmids confer (luxury) functions such as disease resistance/antibiotic resistance/other. whereas pyruvate converted anaerobically to lactate. both lipids and carbohydrates are primary sources of energy for organisms. lipids store more energy per unit mass/per gram than carbohydrates / lipids generally provide 2 to 3 times the energy of carbohydrates for a given mass. lipids provide 38 kJ g–1/9 C g–1 whereas carbohydrates have 17 kJ g–1/4 C g–1. pyruvate enters mitochondrion for aerobic respiration. carbohydrates are easier to transport (than lipids) making their energy more accessible. (naked) DNA/chromosome/nucleoid controls/determines cell structure/ function. flagella used for locomotion/movement of the bacterial cell. plasma membrane pumps substances/carries out active transport. nucleoid initiates reproduction/binary fission. award [8 max]. whereas lipids provide long-term storage. cell wall prevents the cell from bursting. ribosomes synthesize proteins. cytoplasm contains enzymes that carry out metabolism. carbohydrates are short-term storage molecules. because lipids are insoluble (in water) whereas (small) carbohydrates are soluble (in water). (a) (b) (c) M11/4/BIOLO/SP2/ENG/TZ1/XX/M cell wall protects the cell from damage. pili are used to connect bacterial cells/can pull bacteria closer together. capsule protects cell/promotes adherence. aerobic cell respiration if oxygen available and anaerobic if unavailable. [9 max] [4 max] 28 . If the answer includes any eukaryotic structures. plasma membrane controls entry and exit of substances. pyruvate converted aerobically into carbon dioxide and water.

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amino acids diffuse into cells/are absorbed by active transport. wastes leave through the surface of cells. a. g. m. a protease/pepsin digests proteins into polypeptides. d. [5 max] a. eventually surface area can no longer serve the requirements of the cell. blood carries amino acids throughout the body. e. as volume of a cell increases. glycoprotein – with carbohydrate attached on outside. [6 max] (Plus up to [2] for quality) 30 . g. [7 max] a. (amino acids absorbed) into capillaries. peripheral protein – on the surface (not embedded in hydrophobic region) can be attached to integral protein. b. food/oxygen enters through the surface of cells. more metabolic activity in a larger cell means more food and oxygen required. the rate of substance crossing the membrane depends on surface area. c. h. e. trypsin acts in the small intestine / requires a basic pH/pH 8/high pH.–9– M12/4/BIOLO/SP2/ENG/TZ2/XX/M SECTION B Remember. assimilation is when amino acids become part of a cell. (a) (b) (c) Award [1] for each structure clearly drawn and correctly labelled. j. l. f. polypeptides are digested by a protease/trypsin into amino acids. d. cholesterol – shown embedded in bilayer. large molecules (proteins) must be digested into small molecules. (large volume) means more wastes produced. proteins are synthesized at the ribosomes/ER of the cell. c. channel protein – integral protein showing clear channel/pore. phospholipid bilayer – with head and tails. c. excess heat generated will not be lost efficiently (with low surface area to volume ratio). this critical ratio stimulates mitosis. the ratio of its surface area to volume decreases. 5. f. hydrophilic/phosphate/polar heads and hydrophobic/hydrocarbon/fatty acid/ non-polar tails labelled. (thus) the size of the cell is reduced and kept within size limits. b. up to TWO “quality of construction” marks per essay. h. integral protein – embedded in hydrophobic region of the phospholipid bilayer. large volume means longer diffusion time. cells use amino acids to build proteins. e. d. i. k. j. i. f. amino acids absorbed by diffusion/active transport. k. absorption occurs in the villus/microvilli of the small intestine. pepsin works in the stomach / requires an acid/low pH/pH 2 to work. g. b.

[5 max] If the example used is of a recessive X-linked condition. can be used to form a variety of different tissues / form organs. g. genes that are located on just one of the sex chromosomes/X or Y are sex-linked. for a female to be affected (homozygous recessive) the father must be affected. f. can be used to repair/replace damaged/lost cells/tissue. d. sex-linked conditions tend to be more commonly expressed in males. named recessive X-linked condition (e. c. (stem cells) are undifferentiated / have not yet differentiated/specialized.– 11 – 6. female can be homozygous or heterozygous/carrier for a sex-linked/X-linked condition. c. affected males have only one copy of the gene / have carrier daughters but cannot pass the condition on to sons. . can differentiate/specialize in different ways / are pluripotent/totipotent. d. b. used in medical research. (a) (b) a. g. [5 max] a. carrier/heterozygous females can have affected sons/carrier daughters. 31 h. f. e. b. h. use marking points c–h. e. M12/4/BIOLO/SP2/ENG/TZ1/XX/M (stem cells) have/retain the capacity to divide. used in treatment of (named) disease. can be used to produce cell cultures/large number of identical cells. (sex-linked) genes present on the X chromosome are absent from the Y chromosome / vice versa. colour blindness / haemophilia / other valid example).g.

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solvent properties make it the medium for metabolic reactions. low density as ice forms insulation of lakes allowing life below. water is carried (in a transpiration stream) in the xylem. c. h. osmoregulation is control of water balance in organisms/blood/tissues/ cytoplasm. root hairs provide an extended surface area (for active transport and osmosis). flagella. produced/released when water in blood is too low. high latent heat of evaporation/large amounts of energy required for evaporation makes it a good coolant. adhesion of water to the inside of the xylem helps move water up. i. cell wall. solvent properties allow transport of (soluble) molecules/food. b. d. e. f. (a) j. transparency for vision in animals. ADH regulates water levels/solute concentration of the blood. (b) helicase uncoils DNA/splits DNA into two strands. it passes out through the stomata by evaporation/transpiration. d. (RNA) primase adds short length of RNA/primer.  nucleoid/(region containing) naked DNA (distinguished from rest of cytoplasm) ribosome. M12/4/BIOLO/HP2/ENG/TZ2/XX/M a. l. osmotic pressure moves water into the xylem. it increases the permeability of the collecting ducts / increase in the reabsorption of water. water diffuses into air spaces (in spongy mesophyll) of leaves. [4 max] a. f. active transport of ions from soil into the roots (enhances osmotic pressure). (a) (b) (c) 7. (shown as a double line) guard cells control the rate of transpiration pull/evaporation. h. c. primer allows attachment of (DNA) polymerase. water enters roots through the root hairs by osmosis. e. 33 two phosphates removed to release energy (required for the process). g. – 12 movement – cohesion of water to itself enhances water up N12/4/BIOLO/HP2/ENG/TZ0/XX/M the xylem. k. cohesive properties help in transpiration pull/movement of water in plants. lower volume/less urine is produced/urine more concentrated. Award any of the following clearly drawn and correctly labelled. evaporation sets up a transpiration pull that keeps the water moving. high surface tension allows some animals to stride across its surface. (at least a quarter as long as the cell) pili.  (reject inner surface of cell wall labelled as cell membrane)[8 max] low pressure. (complementary base pairing of) adenine with thymine and guanine  (reject A with T  . DNA polymerase III copies DNA. g. b.  (less the width xylem vessels are tubes withthan helical rings of towall) enhance water movement/resist plasma membrane. b. f. adds nucleotides in the 5  t o 3  direction. [6 max] a. leads to more aquaporins (in collecting duct cell membranes). uses deoxynucleoside triphosphates/nucleotides that are free in cell. transparency for photosynthesis. i. high specific heat capacity causes it to maintain environmental temperatures. d. (dots in cytoplasm) (Plus up to [2] for quality) cytoplasm.– 14 – 8. (less than a quarter as long as the cell) [4 max] Award [3 max] if any specifically eukaryotic structure shown. e. c.