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# Hypothesis

Testing
MTH 2212

Recap
• In the previous chapter we illustrated how to
construct a confidence interval estimate of a
parameter from a sample data. However, many
problems in engineering require that we decide
whether to accept or to reject a statement about
some parameter.
• The statement is called a hypothesis, and the
decision making procedure about the hypothesis is
called hypothesis testing.
• it is important to note that hypotheses are always
statements about the population or distribution
under study, not statements about sample.

Statistical Hypothesis
• -The null hypothesis (H0 ) is a statistical
hypothesis that states that there is no difference
between a parameter and a specified value, or
that there is no difference between two
parameters.
• - The alternative hypothesis (H1) is a statistical
hypothesis that states the existence of a
difference between a parameter and a specified
value, or states that there is a difference between
two parameters.

translate conjecture/claim from word into
mathematical symbol. The null and alternative
hypothesis are stated together and the null
hypothesis contains the equal sign as shown.

Examples .

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the mean of scores was 73. The psychologist is not sure whether the grades will be higher or lower. The mean number of defective discs per 1000 is 18. the birth weight of the babies will increase. Eg 6: A psychologist feels that playing soft music during a test will change the results of the test. • Eg 5: An engineer hypothesizes that the mean number of defects can be decreased in a manufacturing process of compact discs by using robots instead of humans for certain tasks.2 kg. In the past. The average of the birth weights of the population is 3.   .• Eg 4: A researcher thinks that if expectant mothers use vitamin pills.

Test of Statistical Hypotheses .

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. A Type I error would be concluding that the drug does not work when it actually does.For Example: Let the null hypothesis H0: This drug will cure an illness. A Type II error would conclude that the drug does work when it actually doesn't.

Examples •Eg •   7: The burning rate of a solid propellant used to power aircrew escape system is approximately normally distributed. (ii)If the acceptance region is defined as 4 find type II error (β) where the true mean burning rate is 52 cm/sec. (i)If the acceptance region is defined as 4 find type I error (α).5 cm/sec. . The true mean burning rate is 50 cm/sec and the standard deviation of the burning rate is 2. (iii)If the acceptance region is defined as 4 find type II error (β) where the true mean burning rate is 52 cm/sec and the number of specimens n = 16. The manufacturer wishes to test H0 : μ=50 cm/sec against H1 : μ ≠ 5 cm/sec using n = 10 specimens.

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We wish to test H0 : μ=100 versus H1 : μ ≠ 100 with a sample of n = 5 specimens.05. a) If the acceptance region is defined as find (i) type I error (α) (ii) type II error (β) for the case where the true mean heat evolved is 103. Hence.   b) Find the boundary of the critical region if the type I error probability is α=0. find the probability of type II error if the true mean evolved is 103.     .•   8: The heat evolved in calories per gram of a cement Eg mixture is approximately normally distributed. The mean is thought to be 100 and the standard deviation is 2.

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5kg. . The company wishes to test the hypothesis H0 : μ=12 against H1 : μ <12 using a random sample of 4 specimens.5 kg. which the company claims has a mean thread elongation of 12 kg with a standard deviation 0.25 kg. c) Find β for the case where the true mean elongation is 11. a) What is the type I error probability if the critical region is defined as b) Find β for the case where the true mean elongation is 11.•   Eg 9: A textile fiber manufacturer is investigating a new drapery yarn.

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•   10: A consumer products company is Eg formulating a new shampoo and is interested in foam height (in mm). . a) Find the type I error probability α if the critical region is b)What is the probability of type II error if the true mean foam height is 185mm? c) Find β for the true mean of 195mm. The company wishes to test H0 : μ=175mm versus H1 : μ >175mm using the results of 10 samples. Foam height is approximately normally distributed and has a standard deviation of 20 mm.

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When n = 10. Eg 11: Consider the propellant burning rate problem when we are testing H0 : μ=50 cm/sec versus H1 : μ ≠ 50 cm/sec. . ability of the test to detect differences. The power of statistical test is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis H0 when the alternative hypothesis is true.2643.POWER Power is a very descriptive and concise measure of the sensitivity of a statistical test. • The sensitivity of the test for detecting the difference between a mean burning rate of 50cm/sec and 52 cm/sec is 0.7357.2643 = 0.7357. Suppose that the mean is μ = 52. The power computed as 1 – β. we found that β = 0. so the power of this test is 1 – β = 1-0.

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Some guideline to summarize the results: .

After a significance level is chosen. The critical value determines the critical and non critical region (acceptance region). It can be any level. the researcher decides what level of significance (α) to use. depending on the seriousness of the type I error.05 or 0.01 level.1. a critical value is selected from a table for the appropriate test. It does not have to be 0. 0.   .Critical value from α value In hypothesis-testing situation.

.•   12: Find the critical value for each Eg situation: .

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hypothesis H0 can be rejected. . we compare the value of p with α and make a The p-value is the smallest significance level α at which the null decision.P-values • The P-value is the actual area under the standard normal distribution curve (or some other curve. Using this pvalue. which is defined as the smallest level of significance at which the given null hypothesis is rejected. In this approach we calculate the p-value for the test. depending on what statistical test is being used) representing the probability of a particular sample mean if the null hypothesis is true.

Determination of the p-value for a ztest .

Example   13: Find the p-value for each of the ••Eg hypothesis tests: .

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Determination of the p-value for a t-test .

Example •   Eg 14: Find the p-value for each of the hypothesis tests with   .

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Hypothesis test about mean μ:   .

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•Eg 16: Urban storm can be contaminated by many sources.. Engr.141g. A sample of 51 Panasonic AAA batteries gave a sample mean zine mass of 2. 2009: 46-57) presented summary data for characteristics of a variety of batteries found in urban areas around Cleveland. of Environ. The article “Urban Battery Litter” (J. When ruptured. these batteries release metals of environmental significance. Does this data provide compelling evidence for concluding that the population mean zinc mass exceed 2.0g if the significant level is 0. including discarded batteries.06g and a sample standard deviation of 0.0015? .

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prompting undesirable publicity.01. wants to be sure that the Super-Duper can is filled with an average of 16 ounces of product. . The physical size of the can doesn’t allow a mean volume significantly above 16 ounces.2 ounce. If the mean volume is significantly less than 16 ounces.7 ounces. Production records show that σ is 0.•Eg 17: A production supervisor at a chemical company. Use this to conduct a hypothesis test with α=0. A random sample of 36 cans shows a sample mean of 15. customers will likely to complain.

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Use α = 0. Assume that these 20 values can be treated as a random sample from a normal population. Test the appropriate hypothesis using (a) the critical approach and (b) the pvalue approach.05. readings are taken on n=20 successive days.5 and the sample standard deviation 106. .Hypothesis test about mean μ:   •Eg18: In attempting to control the strength of the wastes discharged into nearby river. an industrial firm has taken a number of restorative measures. The firm believes that they have lowered the oxygen consuming power of their wastes from a previous mean of 450 manganate in parts per million. To test this belief.23 are obtained. A sample mean of 312.

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A sample of 10 months yields an average of 18 complaints with a standard deviation of 3 complains. something must be done about the agency’s employee screening procedures.• Eg 19: Azman Abdullah. an interviewer.01 level. If Azman’s hypothesis is an understatement. Sidek Ali. . owner of Karisma Employment Agency believes that the agency receives an average of 16 complaints per month from the companies that hire the agency’s people. Conduct a test at the 0. is concerned that the true mean is higher than Azman believes.

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1600 Assuming a population of normally distributed values. Use the 0. test the hypothesis that the population mean impedance measure for all such electrodes is 1400. 1000. . An important component of the TENS system is the skin electrode. 1300. 1400. A random sample of 11 electrodes in the low-impedance group produced impedance measures in ohms of 1200.05 level of significance. 1400. 1200. 1200. 1600.•Eg 20: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) devices are frequently used in the management of acute and chronic pain. 1600. 1700. A study reported in Journal of Physical Therapy was made to determine conductive differences among electrodes used with TENS devices.

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then we can calculate the type II error (β) by       and the sample size n is given by   .Type II error and sample of choice •If  type I error (α) is given.

05. σ=2. Suppose that the true burning rate is 49cm/sec.10? . n=25? b)Suppose that the analyst wishes to design the test so that if the true mean burning rate is differs from 50 cm/sec by as much as 1cm/sec. What is β for the two sided test with α=0. What sample size would be required to ensure that β does not exceed 0.Eg 21 a) Consider the rocket propellant problem in the above Eg 11.